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The Independent Culture

Births: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, poet, 1807; Dame Ellen Alicia Terry, actress, 1847; Enrico Caruso, operatic tenor, 1873; John Ernst Steinbeck, writer, 1902. Deaths: Joan Greenwood, actress, 1987; Lillian Gish (Lillian Diana de Guiche), actress, 1993. On this day: the British Labour Party was founded, with Ramsay MacDonald as secretary, 1900; the Gulf War ended after Iraqi troops retreated and Kuwait was liberated, 1991. Today is the Feast Day of St Alnoth, St Anne Line, St Baldomerius or Galmier, St Gabriel Possenti, St Herefrith of Louth, St John of Gorze, Saints Julian, Cronion, Besas and Eunus, St Leander of Seville and St Thalelaeus the Hermit.


Births: Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, essayist, 1533; Sir John Tenniel, artist and illustrator, 1820; Vicente Minelli, film director, 1913. Deaths: Francisco de Zurbaran, painter, 1664; Henry James, novelist, 1916; Ruby Ethel Keeler, actress, singer and dancer, 1993. On this day: John Wesley signed the "deed of declaration" of the Wesleyan faith, 1784; the last British troops left India, 1948. Tomorrow is the Feast Day of The Martyrs of the Plague at Alexandria, St Hilarus, pope, St Lupicinus, St Oswald of Worcester, St Proterius and St Romanus.