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Births: Andre Michelin, tyre maker, 1853; Ethel Merman (Zimmerman), singer and actress, 1909. Deaths: Edmund Spenser, poet, 1599; Carole Lombard, actress, killed in an air crash 1942; Arturo Toscanini, conductor, 1957. On this day: Ivan the Terrible, first Russian Tsar, was crowned, 1547; the British expedition led by Ernest Shackleton reached the South Magnetic Pole, 1909. Today is the Feast Day of St Berard and Others, St Fursey, St Henry of Cocket, St Honoratus of Arles, St Marcellus I, pope and St Priscilla.


Births: Anne Bronte ("Acton Bell"), novelist, 1820; Al (Alphonse) Capone, gangster, 1899; Nevil Shute (Norway), novelist, 1899. Deaths: Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, painter, 1867; Terence Hanbury White, writer, 1964. On this day: the Papal See was removed from Avignon to Rome, 1377; Hawaii was proclaimed a republic, 1893; Robert Falcon Scott reached the South Pole one month after Roald Amundsen, 1912. Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Antony the Abbot, St Genulf or Genou, St Julian Sabas, St Richimir, St Sabinus of Piacenza, Saints Speusippus, Eleusippus and Meleusippus and St Sulpicius II or Sulpice of Bourges.