Births: Frans Francken the Younger, painter, 1581; Lorenzo Lippi (Perlone Zipoli), poet and painter, 1606; Maximilien-Francois Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, French revolutionary, 1758; Sigmund Freud, neurologist and psychoanalyst, 1856; Rudolph Valentino (Rodolfo Alfonzo Raffaele Pierre Philibert Guglielmi di Valentina d'Antonguolla), actor, 1895; Max Ophuls (Maximilian Oppenheimer), film director, 1902; Stewart Granger, (James Lablanche Stewart), actor, 1913; George Orson Welles, actor, director and writer, 1915.

Deaths: Cornelius Jansen, theologian, 1638; Frans Francken the Younger, painter, 1642; Henry David Thoreau, poet and essayist, 1862; Edward VII, King, 1910; Lyman Frank Baum, author of The Wizard of Oz, 1919; Count Maurice-Polydore Marie-Bernard Maeterlinck, poet and playwright, 1949; Maria Montessori, physician and educationist, 1952; Wilfrid Hyde White, actor, 1991; Marlene Dietrich (Maria Magdalene Dietrich), actress, 1992; Ann Todd, actress, 1993.

On this day: King Henry VIII ordered that the Bible should be placed in every English church, 1536; the island of Manhattan was bought from the native Indians by the Dutch settler Peter Minuit, for trinkets worth about $25, 1626; the first postage stamp, the Penny Black, was issued, 1840; conductors on the London General Omnibus Company in London went on strike over a new ticket-issuing system, 1891; King George V acceded to the throne, 1910; Josef Stalin became leader of the Soviet government, 1941; Roger Bannister ran the first mile in under four minutes, 1954; The Guitar Player, a painting by Jan Vermeer worth over pounds 1m, was found in a London churchyard, after being stolen from Kenwood House, Hampstead, 1974.

Today is the Feast Day of St Edbert, St Evodius of Antioch, St John Before the Latin Gate and St Petronax.