Anniversaries

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The Independent Culture
Births: Louis II, King of Hungary, 1506; Frederick II, King of Denmark, 1534; Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, philosopher and mathematician, 1646; George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucile (Dupin), Baronne Dudevant), novelist, 1804; Sir Nigel Ross Playfair, actor and manager, 1874; Charles Laughton, actor, 1899; William Wyler, film director and producer, 1902; Amy Johnson, aviator, 1903; Diana, Princess of Wales (Lady Diana Frances Spencer), 1961.

Deaths: John Bradford, Protestant martyr, burnt at the stake 1555; Charles Watson Wentworth, second Marquess of Rockingham, statesman, 1782; Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton Detective Agency, 1884; Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1896; Erik Alfred-Leslie Satie (Eric Satie), composer, 1925; Juan Domingo Pern, Argentine president, 1974; Marcel Lajos Breuer, architect and designer, 1981; Robert Charles Duran Mitchum, actor, 1997.

On this day: the Crusaders defeated the Turks at the Battle of Dorylaeum, 1097; King William III defeated the Jacobites under James II at the Battle of the Boyne, 1690; the first volume of the Encyclopedie by Diderot was published, 1751; the United States issued its first adhesive postage stamps (5c and 10c), 1847; addressing the Linnean Society, Charles Darwin announced his theory of evolution, 1858; the Battle of Gettysburg (American Civil War) began, 1863; the Dominion of Canada was established, 1867; Queen Victoria unveiled the Albert Memorial in London, 1872; Zanzibar was ceded to Britain, and, in exchange, Heligoland was ceded to Germany, 1890; in the US, the Klondike gold rush began, 1897; Bernard Shaw's play Candida was first performed, 1900; the Union of South Africa was formed, with Dominion status, 1910; British civil administration in Palestine started, 1920; the first conscripts in Britain were called up, 1939; Jersey was occupied by German forces, 1940; the first tests of nuclear bombs began over Bikini Atoll, 1946; Burundi and Rwanda became independent, 1962; the BBC began colour television and showed tennis from Wimbledon, 1967; the Prince of Wales's Investiture was held at Caernarfon Castle, 1969; Maria Estela Pern became president of Argentina, 1974; the Warsaw Pact was finally abolished, 1991.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Aaron and Julius, St Carilephus or Calais, St Eparchius or Cybard, St Gall of Clermont, St Oliver Plunket, St Servanus or Serf, St Shenute, St Simeon Salus and St Thierry or Theodoric of Mont d'Or.

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