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Births: Henry Glapthorne, playwright, 1610; Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, philosopher, 1804; Charles Lucas, cellist, organist, conductor and composer, 1808; John Stuart Blackie, classical scholar, 1809; Gerard Manley Hopkins, poet, 1844; Helen Beatrix Potter, writer and illustrator, 1866; Marcel Duchamp, Surrealist painter, 1887; Marie Lohr, actress, 1890; Rudy (Hubert Prior) Vallee, singer, 1901; Karl Raimund Popper, philosopher, 1902; Clarence Malcolm Boden Lowry, novelist, 1909; John Thomson Stonehouse, former Postmaster General, 1925; Jacqueline Onassis (Jacqueline Lee Bouvier), publisher and widow of President John F. Kennedy and of Aristotle Onassis, 1929.

Deaths: Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, Chancellor to King Henry VIII, executed 1540; John Speed, historian and cartographer, 1629; Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac, poet and soldier, 1655; Abraham Cowley, poet, 1667; Antonio Lucio Vivaldi, priest, composer and violinist, 1741; Johann Sebastian Bach, composer, 1750; Maximilien-Francois Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, French revolutionary leader, executed 1794; Giuseppe Sarti, composer, 1802; Nathan Mayer Rothschild, banker, 1836; Mortimer Collins, poet and novelist, 1876; Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, philanthropist and centenarian, 1885; Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Plehve, Russian Minister of the Interior, assassinated 1904; William James Mayo, surgeon and co-founder of the Mayor Clinic, 1939; Otto Hahn, nuclear physicist, 1944; Margot (Emma Alice Margaret) Asquith, writer, 1945; Frank Loesser, popular composer and lyricist, 1969.

On this day: the Roman emperor Maximus was defeated near Aquileia by the Byzantine emperor Theodosius I, 388; potatoes were first brought to England from Colombia, 1586; Charles V Gustav of Sweden invaded Poland, 1656; the Forth and Clyde Canal was opened, 1790; Peru declared its independence from Spain, 1821; in the United States, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, 1868; Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, 1914; the IXth Olympic Games opened in Amsterdam, 1928; the 34,000-ton Cunard-White Star liner Mauretania was launched at Cammell-Laird's yard at Birkenhead, 1938; in New York, a B-25 bomber crashed into the tower of the Empire State Building, setting the building ablaze and killing 13, 1945; Edward Heath became leader of the Conservative Party, 1965; an earthquake took place in in the Tangshan area of China, with more than 800,000 deaths, 1976.

Today is the Feast Day of St Botvid, Saints Nazarius and Celsus and St Samson of Dol.