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Births: Thomas Luber (Thomas Erastus), theologian and physician, 1524; Queen Elizabeth I, 1533; Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, naturalist, 1707; Francois-Andre Danican Philidor, composer and chess champion, 1726; Thomas Coutts, banker, 1735; William Butterfield, church architect, 1814; John McDouall Stuart, explorer of Australia, 1815; Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, statesman, 1836; William Friese-Greene, pioneer of the cinema, 1855; Anna Mary ("Grandma") Moses, primitive painter, 1860; George Herbert Hirst, cricketer, 1871; Clarence Michael James Dennis, poet and journalist ("laureate of the larrikin"), 1876; Dame Edith Sitwell, writer, 1887; Lt-Gen Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, soldier and writer, 1895; Sir John Anthony Quayle, actor, 1913; Peter Lawford, actor, 1923; Charles Hardin ("Buddy") Holly, rock singer, 1936.

Deaths: Ferdinand IV ("El Emplazado"), King of Castile and Len, 1312; Frederick IV, King of Germany, 1493; Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII, 1548; Hannah More, writer and evangelist, 1833; Rene-Francois- Armand Sully Prudhomme, poet, 1907; William Holman Hunt, pre-Raphaelite painter, 1910; Gertrude Lawrence (Alexandra Dagmar Lawrence-Klasen), actress, 1952; Charles Burgess Fry, cricketer, footballer and journalist, 1956; Patrick Gordon Campbell, third Baron Glenavy, writer and broadcaster, 1981; Liam O'Flaherty, novelist, 1984.

On this day: the French army under Napoleon defeated the Russians at the Battle of Borodino, 1812; the first known reference to "Uncle Sam" was in an editorial in the Troy Post (New York), 1813; the independence of Brazil from Portugal was declared, 1822; Grace Horsley Darling and William, her father, rescued the crew of the Forfarshire steamship at the Farne Islands, 1838; the British explorer Sir Francis Younghusband led an expedition to Tibet, where a treaty was signed with the Dalai Lama, 1904.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Alcmund and Tilbert, St Anastasius the Fuller, St Cloud or Clodoald, St Grimonia, St John of Nicomedia, St Regina or Reine of Alise and St Sozon.