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Births: Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of King Henry VIII, 1515; Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth Earl of Chesterfield, literary patron and statesman, 1694; Michael Faraday, physicist and chemist, 1791; Moritz Karasowski, pianist and composer, 1823; Shigeru Yoshida (Takeuchi), statesman, 1878; Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, suffragette, 1880; Sir Reginald George Stapledon, agriculturist, 1882; Erich von Stroheim (Erich Oswald Stroheim), actor and film director, 1885.

Deaths: Selim I, Sultan of Turkey, 1520; Johann Agricola (Schneider or Schnitter), Protestant reformer, 1566; Mary Martha Sherwood (Butt), author of children's books, 1851; Alain-Fournier (Henri-Alban Fournier), writer, killed in action on the Marne 1914; Sir Charles Santley, bass- baritone, 1922; Mary Roberts Rinehart, novelist, 1958; William Edmund, first Baron Ironside, soldier, 1959; Axel Springer, publisher, 1985; Dorothy Lamour (Mary Leta Slaton Kaumeyer), actress, 1996.

On this day: Sir Robert Walpole became the first prime minister to move into 10 Downing Street, 1735; France was declared to be a Republic, 1792; Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, ordering the freeing of slaves, 1862; Otto von Bismarck became prime minister of Prussia, 1862; Gene Tunney beat Jack Dempsey for the world heavyweight boxing title, 1927; at a pit disaster at Gresford, North Wales, 265 miners were killed, 1934; Independent Television began operating in Britain, 1955; Juan Pern, Argentinian leader, was deposed, 1955; Mali became independent, 1960.

Today is the Feast Day of St Emmeramus, St Felix III (IV), pope, St Lauto or Lo, St Maurice of Agaunum, St Salaberga, St Thomas of Villanueva and the Theban Legion.