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The Independent Culture
Births: Leon-Philippe Teisserenc de Bort, meteorologist and discoverer of the stratosphere, 1855; James Elroy Flecker, poet and playwright, 1884; John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, physiologist and geneticist, 1892; Roy Rogers (Leonard Franklin Slye), cowboy actor, 1912; Vivien Leigh (Vivien Hartley), actress, 1913.

Deaths: Casimir III, King of Poland, 1370; Mariotto Albertinelli, painter, 1515; James Clerk Maxwell, physicist, 1879; August Friedrich Leopold Weismann, biologist, 1914; Maurice Utrillo, painter, 1955; Mack Sennett (Michael Sinnott), film producer and director of comedies, 1960; Ward Bond, actor 1960; King Peter of Yugoslavia, 1970; Lionel Trilling, writer, 1975; Al Capp (Alfred Gerald Caplin), cartoonist, 1979; Eamonn Andrews, television presenter, 1987; Ian Robert Maxwell (Jan Ludvik Hoch), newspaper chairman, found dead at sea 1991; Sir Isaiah Berlin, philosopher and historian, 1997.

On this day: the Gunpowder Plot was discovered, 1605; the British sovereign abandoned the title "King of France", 1800; in Liverpool, the first British Woolworth's store opened, 1909; on the outbreak of war with Turkey, Cyprus was annexed by Britain, 1914; US troops under General Pershing went into action for the first time on the Western Front, 1917; the first automatic traffic lights in Britain were installed in Wolverhampton, 1927; Richard Nixon was elected as 37th US President, 1968.

Today is the Feast Day of St Bertilla of Chelles, Saints Elisabeth and Zachary, St Episteme and St Galation.