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Births: Mark Akenside, poet and physician, 1721; Walter Geikie, painter, 1795; Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, playwright, 1818; Anton Krause, pianist, conductor and composer, 1834; Edward VII, King, 1841; Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, architect, 1880; Dr Herbert Thomas Kalmus, inventor of Technicolor, 1881; Jean-Omer Marie-Gabriel Monnet, political economist, 1888; Anthony Asquith, film director and producer, 1902.

Deaths: William Camden, antiquary and historian, 1623; Aernout van der Neer, painter, 1677; Gilbert Sheldon, archbishop, 1677; Karl Stamitz, composer, 1801; Thomas Girtin, painter and etcher, 1802; Paul Sandby, watercolour painter, 1809; Sir Joseph Joel Duveen, art dealer and collector, 1908; Howard Pyle, artist and writer, 1911; Guillaume Apollinaire (Wilhelm Apollinaris Kostrowitsky), poet, 1918; James Ramsay MacDonald, statesman, 1937; Arthur Neville Chamberlain, statesman, 1940; Sigmund Romberg, composer, 1951; Chaim Weizmann, first president of Israel, 1952; King Ibn Saud, 1953; Dylan Marlais Thomas, poet, 1953; General Charles de Gaulle, statesman, 1970; Egon Wellesz, composer, 1974.

On this day: Moses Montefiore was the first Jew to be knighted in England, 1837; the New York Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert, 1858; flogging in the British army was abolished, 1859; the first London performance of the comic opera Erminie was staged, 1885; the Cullinan diamond was presented to King Edward VII on his 66th birthday, 1907; the first woman mayor, Mrs Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, was elected, at Aldeburgh, Suffolk, 1908; the Greek army captured Salonika from the Turks, 1912; during a storm on the Great Lakes in North America, 279 lives were lost, 1913; the German battleship Emden was destroyed, 1914; Georges Clemenceau was elected as prime minister of France, 1917; the German Kaiser abdicated after a revolution in Germany, 1918; Ludwig III, King of Bavaria abdicated, and a republic was declared, when Kurt Eisner became president, 1918; Adolf Hitler failed in an attempt to seize power in Munich, 1923; the Japanese took Shanghai, 1937; the death penalty for murder was abolished in Britain, 1965; Edward Brooke of Massachusetts was elected as the first black member of the US Senate, 1966.

Today is the Feast Day of St Benignus or Benen, St Theodore the Recruit and St Vitonus or Vanne.