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The Independent Culture

TODAY: Births: Jacques Offenbach (Jakob Levy Eberst), composer, 1819; Errol Flynn, actor, 1909. Deaths: Willem Barents, explorer, in the Arctic, 1597; Francisco (Pancho) Villa (Doroteo Arango), South American revolutionary, assassinated 1923. On this day: the first municipal fire brigade in Britain was founded at Beverley, Yorkshire, 1726; 147 people were confined in the cell later called the Black Hole of Calcutta, from which only 23 came out alive, 1756; a new Tay Railway Bridge was opened for public traffic, 1887. Today is the Feast Day of St Adalbert of Magdeburg, St Bain or Bagnus, St Goban, Saints John Fenwick and John Gavan, St Silverius, Pope.

TOMORROW: Births: Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, army officer, 1884; Mack Gordon (Morris Gittler), lyricist, 1904; Jean-Paul Sartre, writer, 1905. Deaths: Niccol di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, diplomat and author, 1527; Inigo Jones, architect, 1652; John Hatchard, publisher and bookseller, 1849. On this day: the foundation of stone of the new St Paul's Cathedral, London, was laid, 1675; the Royal College of Surgeons was founded, 1843; the musical show Evita was first produced, London, 1978. Tomorrow is the Summer Solstice (longest day) and the Feast Day of St Agofredus, St Alban of Mainz, St Aloysius Gonzaga, St Engelmund, St Eusebius of Samosata, St John Rigby, St Leutfrid or Leufroi and St Maine or Meen.