Anniversaries

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The Independent Culture
Births: Abbe Maximilian Stadler, priest and composer, 1748; Dean Frederic William Farrar, theologian and author of Eric, or Little by Little, 1831; Sir Granville Bantock, composer and conductor, 1868; Mata Hari (Margaretha Geertruide Zelle), spy, 1876; Billie Burke (Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Burke), actress, 1885; Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey, archaeologist and anthropologist, 1903.

Deaths: Robert Blake, British admiral, 1657; Caroline, Queen of George IV, 1821; Joseph-Marie Jacquard, weaver and inventor, 1834; Bix (Leon Bismarck) Beiderbecke, jazz cornet-player and composer, 1931; Konstantin Stanislavsky (Konstantin Sergeyevich Alekseyev), theatre director, 1938; Sir Rabindranath Tagore, writer, 1941; Oliver Norvell Hardy, film comedian, 1957; Brigid Antonia Brophy (Lady Levey), novelist, 1995.

On this day: Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII) landed at Milford Haven in a bid for the crown, 1485; the first race meeting at Ascot was instituted by Queen Anne, 1711; the newspaper New England Courant was first published in Boston, 1721; the two suffragettes Mrs Mary Leigh and Gladys Evans were sentenced to five years penal servitude for setting fire to the Theatre Royal, Dublin, 1912; Louis Philippe was proclaimed "citizen king" of France, 1830; an act of Parliament was passed prohibiting the employment of climbing boys as chimney-sweeps, 1840; Ottawa became the capital of Canada, 1858; in London, Finsbury Park was opened, occupying the land of the former Hornsey Wood, 1869; Florence Maybrick was found guilty of murdering her husband, 1889; Britain issued pounds 1 and 10-shilling notes, 1914; the Daylight Saving Act, which permanently established British Summer Time, was passed, 1925; the first motor racing Grand Prix in Britain was held at Brooklands, 1926; Britain's transatlantic airmail service began, 1939; US forces landed on Guadalcanal, 1942; in Colombia, a train drawing seven trucks containing dynamite exploded, killing 1,200 people, 1956; the French colony of the Ivory Coast became independent, 1960.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Agapitus, Sixtus II and Felicissimus, St Albert of Trapani, St Cajetan or Gaetano, St Claudia, St Dogmetius the Persian, St Donatus of Arezzo, St Victricius.

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