Architecture: George Smiley would have hated it: Discreet the new MI6 headquarters is not. Rather, argues Rowan Moore, it is a travesty of what this prime Thames site could have been

LONDON is sprinkled with drab, blank, George Smiley-like buildings which, according to the confidential information of taxi drivers, are the headquarters of either MI5 or MI6. This spy-spotting is, however, a dying sport. MI6 is moving to the most conspicuous new building in London, a 200ft- high, green and cream extravaganza of slabs and terraces that mounts up from the Thames at Vauxhall Bridge. It will take 15 more months to finish the interior, but the exterior is complete.

Here the spirit of Smiley has given way to that of Arnold Schwarzenegger. The edifice is all pectorals and gigantic shoulders, enveloping a button-sized, coiffured head, in the form of its central rotunda. A jagged assembly of steps and semicircles, its movements are robotic, its speech deliberate and its skin-coloured, fleshy protruberances thinly conceal a metallic inner structure.

It suggests, too, a spectacular public event, with its fearful symmetry and regimented conical trees, clamped in place with heavy steel brackets and clipped to within an inch of their lives. Yet public displays are the last thing one expects of MI6.

How has this dramatic mismatch of building and user come about? One might detect the traditional civil servant's delight in sending other civil servants to benighted spots such as Croydon or Canary Wharf. The most likely reason is the sort of hard-headed financial decision that involves occupying offices in 1994 at 1988 prices, which was when the Government took the building on.

These matters, however, are between the Government and the taxpayer. What matters to architecture is this: whether the MI6 building is a fit conclusion to more than 10 years of agonising about a site which, according to Michael Heseltine in 1981, was 'as outstanding an opportunity as is offered anywhere in the Western world, straddling as it does a major approach to the capital'.

The traffic-swept area is the most embarrassingly dismal corner of central London, but, being large and on the river, the site offered the chance for something remarkable, a new Adelphi, say, or architecture of the quality of Wren's and Hawksmoor's further down the river at Greenwich.

Its story starts in earnest in 1979, although it already had a 20- year prehistory of unrealised proposals. In the year of Mrs Thatcher's first victory, Keith Wickenden MP, visionary Thatcherite and founder of European Ferries, set about realising his beliefs.

He wanted to prove that enterprise and culture could prosper together, so he commissioned a scheme for the site (which his company owned) that would include not only 300,000sq ft of speculative offices and 100 flats, but also a stupendous gallery to house the Tate's collection of modern sculpture. The architects for the scheme were Abbott Howard, whom the Observer identified as the ones to watch out for in the Eighties.

Unfortunately, the gallery would have occupied most of the site, which meant the offices being housed in a 500ft tower in green glass, soon nicknamed the 'Green Giant'. The design caused outrage. At a public inquiry it was called a 'monstrosity and a gross overdevelopment', the inspector found against it, and Mr Heseltine, in his first stint at the Department of the Environment, refused it planning permission.

European Ferries sold the site, Abbott Howard retreated to a more peaceful life in Hertfordshire and Mr Heseltine called for 'the highest quality of design', and an architectural competition.

One followed, for the Green Giant site and vacant land on the opposite side of the Vauxhall Bridge approach road. Some presentable designs were produced, even though the developers' brief still called for an awful lot of offices. Shortlists were announced, public opinion canvassed and ignored, and a winner chosen. The new owners said, 'This is one scheme that will happen' - and went into receivership.

Eventually another developer, Regalian Properties, bought the Green Giant part of the site, and employed Terry Farrell as its architect. His scheme had arranged 'itself regularly like beads on a necklace around a central public spine'. It created public spaces, serving a mixture of flats and offices that were sheltered from the area's busy roads and opened on to the river. It promised to create the beginnings of a neighbourhood, something the area conspicuously lacks, and to make the Thames more accessible.

But in 1988, after Regalian had appointed Farrell, it decided that a very large office block, uncontaminated by other uses, would be the most desirable use for the site. Farrell designed one, and the previously hostile London Borough of Lambeth, sweetened by a 'planning gain' - a large sum to spend elsewhere in the borough - granted planning permission. The scheme was for 50 per cent more office space than the Green Giant, but there was no murmur of 'gross overdevelopment'.

The Government then bought the site and projected offices for the use of MI6, and had the design made more secure. Windows were omitted from the bottom two floors and a dry moat and a wet moat - the latter disguised as a fountain - were constructed to keep the public away. All that remained of Farrell's necklace of public spaces was a riverside area divorced from any other form of life and thus of limited use to the public. And 13 years on, the Tate is still looking for a new gallery.

Although the MI6 building intrudes on the skyline less than the Green Giant would have, it also contributes less to its immediate surroundings; and, while office workers in the latter would never have been far from an inspiring view, those in the bowels of MI6 can be 100ft or more from a window that does not even look on to a light-well. Farrell, champion of accessible urban spaces, of mixed use, of the humane, of knitting together ravaged fragments of cities, found himself building an aggressive, single-purpose fortress.

It was the market, he says, not his decisions, that led to this conclusion, and one should attend instead to the architectural composition of his response to a given brief. This argument, in favouring abstract formal qualities over the creation of public spaces, is an odd one to come from an avowed populist, but it is true that Farrell is an accomplice, not a prime mover.

There are, in fact, no individual culprits. One cannot exactly blame successive developers for pressing to build a large office block until they got their way. One can, however, criticise a system in which ministers pronounce about outstanding opportunities, without taking sufficient action to lend force to their pronouncements. If a large office block was, after all, acceptable, it should have been permitted at the beginning. If not, why is there an even bigger one there now?

There is also a confusion of form and contents, of aesthetics and use. The main issue on this site concerned use: whether flats, restaurants, open spaces and a gallery were desirable, how much office space was reasonable, and so on. But ever since the Green Giant was rejected, these issues have barely been discussed. The Heseltine-promoted competition, like Farrell's defence, was about appearance, about dressing up overdevelopment.

Yet if a building is too big and monothematic, the design can do little to make amends. The best architect in the world cannot dress up a mastodon as anything but a mastodon. Here Farrell's complicity becomes active, not passive, as he promotes an architecture - Post-Modernism - suggesting that you can have it both ways: that an architecture of facades need not be compromised by whatever it contains.

It also undermines the worthier aims of Post-Modernism and of Farrell's earlier work - diversity, richness, accessibility - by stitching a cloak for the monolithic. The MI6 building is as overbearing and impermeable as any monstrosity you could blame on the Modern movement. It is even made of that dread Modernist material, concrete.

(Photograph omitted)

Suggested Topics
Arts and Entertainment
The Secret Cinema performance of Back to the Future has been cancelled again
filmReview: Sometimes the immersive experience was so good it blurred the line between fiction and reality
Arts and Entertainment
Sydney and Melbourne are locked in a row over giant milk crates
Arts and Entertainment
Crowd control: institutions like New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art are packed

Arts and Entertainment
Cillian Murphy stars as Tommy Shelby in Peaky Blinders

Arts and Entertainment
The cast of The Big Bang Theory in a still from the show

Arts and Entertainment

Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Travel Shop
the manor
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on city breaks Find out more
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on chic beach resorts Find out more
sardina foodie
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on country retreats Find out more
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Dress the Gaza situation up all you like, but the truth hurts

    Robert Fisk on Gaza conflict

    Dress the situation up all you like, but the truth hurts
    Save the tiger: Tiger, tiger burning less brightly as numbers plummet

    Tiger, tiger burning less brightly

    When William Blake wrote his famous poem there were probably more than 100,000 tigers in the wild. These days they probably number around 3,200
    5 News's Andy Bell retraces his grandfather's steps on the First World War battlefields

    In grandfather's footsteps

    5 News's political editor Andy Bell only knows his grandfather from the compelling diary he kept during WWI. But when he returned to the killing fields where Edwin Vaughan suffered so much, his ancestor came to life
    Lifestyle guru Martha Stewart reveals she has flying robot ... to take photos of her farm

    Martha Stewart has flying robot

    The lifestyle guru used the drone to get a bird's eye view her 153-acre farm in Bedford, New York
    Former Labour minister Meg Hillier has demanded 'pootling lanes' for women cyclists

    Do women cyclists need 'pootling lanes'?

    Simon Usborne (who's more of a hurtler) explains why winning the space race is key to happy riding
    A tale of two presidents: George W Bush downs his paintbrush to pen father’s life story

    A tale of two presidents

    George W Bush downs his paintbrush to pen father’s life story
    Restaurateur Mitch Tonks has given the Great Western Pullman dining car a makeover

    The dining car makes a comeback

    Restaurateur Mitch Tonks has given the Great Western Pullman dining car a makeover
    Gallery rage: How are institutions tackling the discomfort of overcrowding this summer?

    Gallery rage

    How are institutions tackling the discomfort of overcrowding this summer?
    Louis van Gaal has £500,000 video surveillance system installed to monitor Manchester United players

    Eye on the prize

    Louis van Gaal has £500,000 video surveillance system installed to monitor Manchester United players
    Women's rugby: Tamara Taylor adds fuel to the ire in quest to land World Cup

    Women's rugby

    Tamara Taylor adds fuel to the ire in quest to land World Cup
    Save the tiger: The day America’s love of backyard tigers led to a horrific bloodbath

    The day America’s love of backyard tigers led to a horrific bloodbath

    With only six per cent of the US population of these amazing big cats held in zoos, the Zanesville incident in 2011 was inevitable
    Samuel Beckett's biographer reveals secrets of the writer's time as a French Resistance spy

    How Samuel Beckett became a French Resistance spy

    As this year's Samuel Beckett festival opens in Enniskillen, James Knowlson, recalls how the Irish writer risked his life for liberty and narrowly escaped capture by the Gestapo
    We will remember them: relatives still honour those who fought in the Great War

    We will remember them

    Relatives still honour those who fought in the Great War
    Star Wars Episode VII is being shot on film - and now Kodak is launching a last-ditch bid to keep celluloid alive

    Kodak's last-ditch bid to keep celluloid alive

    Director J J Abrams and a few digital refuseniks shoot movies on film. Simon Usborne wonders what the fuss is about
    Once stilted and melodramatic, Hollywood is giving acting in video games a makeover

    Acting in video games gets a makeover

    David Crookes meets two of the genre's most popular voices