Back to square one with Kasimir Malevich's new exhibition at the Tate

Claudia Pritchard previews a new show at the Tate devoted to Kasimir Malevich, the Russian painter who shaped an art revolution.

Nothing can have prepared visitors to an exhibition in December 1915, inside an apartment block on Marsovo Pole in the newly renamed Petrograd, for what they were to see. At the oddly named 0,10 Last Futurist Exhibition of Paintings they were confronted by walls of canvases showing no recognisable images – no portraits, still lifes or landscapes – but rather apparently random arrangements of geometric shapes.

And presiding over the erratically hung paintings, in the high corner traditionally reserved in the Russian home for a religious icon, was not a Madonna and Child or Christ in Majesty, but a stark, black square.

This uncompromising statement was the work of 36-year-old Kasimir Malevich. Crudely over-painted – X-rays reveal an earlier, chromatic work beneath – it was, like so many landmark works of art before and since, cited by at least one critic as proof of the death of painting. But its legacy was far-reaching, liberating the artist from the figurative, as even recent, rising or contemporary movements in the West, such as Cubism and Surrealism, did not do, with their bottles and guitars, mannequins and found objects.

At Tate Modern, visitors to Malevich: Revolutionary of Russian Art, opening this month, will be able to experience something of the amazement of walking into 0,10, which is being replicated as faithfully as possible, with the help of a single, precious archive picture of the original event. Then, 39 new works were shown, of which 20 can be seen in the photograph; other artists, including Popova and Tatlin, were also exhibiting, but their involvement in one of the most groundbreaking exhibitions of the 20th century is often overlooked. Malevich had for months been painting virtually in secret, unleashing in one go dozens of small canvases on which danced blocks of pure colour.

The black square – there are several versions – was to become Malevich’s personal motif. At his funeral in 1935, the hearse had one strapped to the radiator, and his gravestone also bore one on a slab of white. It was as far as visually possible from the rococo excesses of the Romanovs, whose 300-year rule was coming to its end at the time of the Last Futurist exhibition. In place of the czars’ supremacy, Malevich created his own “suprematism”, his own word for art where colour and form alone communicate, untrammelled by props.

“The art of painting, sculpture, the word, was up until now loaded with all kinds of rubbish – odalisques, Egyptian and Persian kings, Solomons, Salomes, princes, princesses, and their favourite little dogs,” he wrote in a pamphlet accompanying the exhibition. “Painting was a necktie on the starched shirt of a gentleman and a pink corset holding in the stomach of a fat lady.”

But the discomforting black square had, in 1915, already had a life elsewhere. In 1913, the year that Stravinsky and Diaghilev turned the dance world upside down with the rawness of The Rite of Spring, Malevich had worked as designer on an opera, with a group of friends including the now little-known composer Mikhail Matyushin. Victory Over the Sun, performed at Luna Park in St Petersburg, was a crazed futuristic fantasy, sung in an invented language, Zaum, peopled with characters and creatures from other planets, and telling in jagged fragments the eye-popping fable, with its undisguised allusions to the fall of the tsars and challenges to religious authority, of the Sun’s redundancy and obliteration. The outlandish costumes designed by Malevich were richly coloured and made the actors look like three-dimensional versions of the conically constructed subjects in his 1912 pictures, The Woodcutter and The Scyther.

There was an appetite for the avant-garde in 1913 that would be dulled by the First World War, but in December of that year two performances of Victory Over the Sun sold out, and the audience divided, rewardingly if predictably, into those who hailed a new masterpiece and those who cried: “Enough!”. There was a revival at the Barbican in 1999 which prompted similarly mixed reviews, but it is rarely staged, so footage at Tate Modern showing an extract from an American production will be new to most. I saw this in the show’s previous incarnation last year at the Stedelijk in Amsterdam, from whose vast Malevich collection many pieces are being loaned to the Tate, and can vouchsafe for the opera’s compelling madcappery. And the set design is dominated by a square, divided diagonally into black and white sectors – the antithesis of the round, yellow sun and the prototype of Black Square.

Between Victory Over the Sun and 0,10 Malevich, now avant-gardist-in-chief, defied other conventions about the job of art with a succession of works in which recognisable objects featured but were depicted without a relationship of narrative or scale. In An Englishman in Moscow (1914) a top-hatted gent stares flatly out from behind a fish; a scimitar, a lit candle, a tiny church, scissors and a large red wooden spoon, (as worn, brooch-like, by anarchic artists at the time) float across him, with printed words and parts of words: “time”, “darkness” “partial”. The references to Cubism are clear, but here too is the juxtaposition of unconnected objects found in the contemporary work of de Chirico, and the suspended animation of Chagall.

With the 1917 revolution, the avant-garde became the establishment. Malevich was given important teaching and administrative roles. Suprematism was absorbed into daily life: the façade of the White Barracks in Vitebsk, for example, that now housed the offices of the city’s Committee for the Struggle against Unemployment, was decorated with his triangles, circles and squares. By 1923, Malevich was appointed temporary director of the State Institute of Artistic Culture; under Stalin, in 1926, he was dismissed for alleged counter-revolutionary activities.

Late in his career he would return to figurative painting, but suprematism had left its mark: on his way towards late naturalism, in the late 1920s and early 1930s, it is as if he rediscovers the other-worldly figures of Victory Over the Sun. With his budetlyane – “men of the future” – the peasant subjects of his early work are revisited and rendered monumental. Head of a Peasant (c 1929-32) has the symbolism and dignity of an icon – the very sort of image that he had sought to challenge with the once daring, now much-admired, Black Square.

‘Malevich: Revolutionary of Russian Art’ runs at Tate Modern (tate.org.uk) from 16 July to 26 October

 

Self Portrait (1910) A Life in brief: Kasimir Malevich

by Jamie Crow

23 February 1879

Born to Ludwika and Seweryn Malewicz, ethnic Poles who had settled in Ukraine following the Polish uprising of 1863.

 

1904-1910

Studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture and in the studio of Fedor Rerberg in Moscow, and began to participate in various exhibitions with the Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of Youth) in St Petersburg.

 

1912-1913

Became more experimental, adopting a Cubo-Futurist painting style and designing the stage set for avant-garde opera Victory over the Sun, which included a black square placed against the backdrop of a sun.

 

1915

Published his manifesto From Cubism to Suprematism, which announced his move on from cubism and laid down the foundations for the concept of the radical abstraction of Suprematism.

 

1915

The first “black square” was exhibited at the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, and was considered by many to be the breakthrough for Malevich’s artistic career.

 

1923-1926

Appointed temporary director of the State Institute of Artistic Culture, only to be dismissed three years later by Stalin for alleged counter-revolutionary activities.

 

1927

Travelled from Warsaw to Berlin and Munich hosting foreign exhibitions that finally gave him international recognition.

 

15 May 1935

Died from cancer. On his deathbed, a black square was hung above him in memorium.

Arts and Entertainment
Over their 20 years, the band has built a community of dedicated followers the world over
music
Arts and Entertainment
The Wu-Tang Clan will sell only one copy of their album Once Upon A Time In Shaolin
musicWu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own only copies of their latest albums
Arts and Entertainment
Bradley Cooper, Alessandro Nivola and Patricia Clarkson on stage

film
Arts and Entertainment

Grace Dent on TV

tv
Arts and Entertainment
Taylor Swift is heading to Norwich for Radio 1's Big Weekend

music
PROMOTED VIDEO
Arts and Entertainment
Reese Witherspoon starring in 'Wild'

It's hard not to warm to Reese Witherspoon's heroismfilm
Arts and Entertainment
Word up: Robbie Coltrane as dictionary guru Doctor Johnson in the classic sitcom Blackadder the Third
books

Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

ebooks
Arts and Entertainment
The Oscar nominations are due to be announced today

Oscars 2015
Arts and Entertainment
Hacked off: Maisie Williams in ‘Cyberbully’

Maisie Williams single-handedly rises to the challenge

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Eddie Redmayne in The Theory of Everything and Benedict Cumberbatch in The Imitation Game are both nominated at the Bafta Film Awards
Arts and Entertainment

Academy criticised after no non-white actors nominated

Arts and Entertainment
Damian Lewis shooting a scene as Henry VIII in Wolf Hall
TV

Arts and Entertainment
A history of violence: ‘Angry, White and Proud’ looked at the rise of far-right groups

tv

An expose of hooliganism masquerading as an ideological battle

Arts and Entertainment

art

Lee Hadwin can't draw when he's awake, but by night he's an artist

Arts and Entertainment

TV

Arts and Entertainment
Michael Keaton in the 1998 Beetlejuice original

film

Arts and Entertainment

TV

Arts and Entertainment
Olivia Colman and David Tennant star in 'Broadchurch'

TV

Arts and Entertainment
Michael Kitchen plays Christopher Foyle in ITV's 'Foyle's War'

TV
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Downton Abbey star Joanne Froggatt will be starring in Dominic Savage's new BBC drama The Secrets

Arts and Entertainment
Vividly drawn: Timothy Spall in Mike Leigh’s ‘Mr Turner’
film
Arts and Entertainment
arts + ents
News
art

‘Remember the attackers are a cold-blooded, crazy minority’, says Blek le Rat

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

    What the six wise men told Tony Blair

    Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
    25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

    25 years of The Independent on Sunday

    The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
    Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

    Homeless Veterans appeal

    As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
    Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

    Smash hit go under the hammer

    It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
    Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

    The geeks who rocked the world

    A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
    Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

    Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

    Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea
    America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

    America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

    These days in the US things are pretty much stuck where they are, both in politics and society at large, says Rupert Cornwell
    A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

    A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

    A veteran of the Fifties campaigns is inspiring a new generation of activists
    Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

    Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

    A C Benson called him 'a horrid little fellow', George Orwell would have shot him, but what a giant he seems now, says DJ Taylor
    Growing mussels: Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project

    Growing mussels

    Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project
    Diana Krall: The jazz singer on being friends with Elton John, outer space and skiing in Dubai

    Diana Krall interview

    The jazz singer on being friends with Elton John, outer space and skiing in Dubai
    Pinstriped for action: A glimpse of what the very rich man will be wearing this winter

    Pinstriped for action

    A glimpse of what the very rich man will be wearing this winter
    Russell T Davies & Ben Cook: 'Our friendship flourished online. You can share some very revelatory moments at four in the morning…'

    Russell T Davies & Ben Cook: How we met

    'Our friendship flourished online. You can share some very revelatory moments at four in the morning…'
    Bill Granger recipes: Our chef serves up his favourite Japanese dishes

    Bill Granger's Japanese recipes

    Stock up on mirin, soy and miso and you have the makings of everyday Japanese cuisine
    Michael Calvin: How we need more Eric Cantonas to knock some sense into us

    Michael Calvin's Last Word

    How we need more Eric Cantonas to knock some sense into us