Arts: The man who was Yoda

How did an obscure scholar called Joseph Campbell inspire so much of our mass culture?

He has become my Yoda" said George Lucas of Joseph Campbell, circa 1985. Few of us will need footnotes for the first two names, but that last name may be curiously unfamiliar - certainly in Britain, though not the United States, where all but the most benighted bookshops stock at least one Campbell title, just down the aisle from the Garfield greetings cards and Far Side calendars. Why "curiously" unfamiliar? The reason is that it could plausibly argued that no other academic has had such a far- reaching effect on mass culture as Joseph Campbell (1904-1987), the Irish- American scholar of comparative mythology.

The American journalist and screenwriter Richard Beban was among the first to observe that no fewer than seven out of the ten top-grossing films of all time - most obviously the Star Wars trilogy - had been strongly influenced by Campbell's scholarly writings on the myth of the hero. And his remarks were made in the late 1980s, long before The Phantom Menace blasted its way into the upper reaches of the Variety charts.

Campbell has also been acknowledged as a signal influence by rock musicians (The Grateful Dead, David Byrne), children's writers (Richard Adams, author of Watership Down), poets (Robert Bly, poet and author of the feel-good bloke book, Iron John), sculptors (Isamu Noguchi), choreographers (Martha Graham), and plenty of successful film directors and producers besides George Lucas, including Steven Spielberg and the creator of the Mad Max series, George Miller.

A dozen Ph.Ds could be launched from that short list alone, but there can be no argument about the most inescapable manifestation of Campbell's theorising. For good or ill, the best-known fairy story of our times was directly inspired by a scholar who spent most of his long working life in obscurity. As Marx to Communism, as Hayek to Thatcherism, so Joseph Campbell to Star Wars.

Such, at any rate, is the approved party line chez George Lucas and company. Though no one seriously disputes Lucas's awareness of Campbell's work, a more sardonic reading of this is possible: for example, Lucas, craving intellectual dignity for his vastly profitable but rather silly space opera, grossly exaggerates his debt to Campbell's work; while Campbell, gratified by the tidalwave of popular adulation, graciously accepts the bouquets strewn at his brogues and politely agrees that Star Wars is not merely tip-top stuff, but a faithful embodiment of his ideas.

Unduly harsh? Maybe. The precise nuances will remain shrouded until someone undertakes a full biography of Campbell. Still, even a short account of his life must count as one of the most amusingly implausible subplots in the history of popular culture. One of Campbell's contentions was that mythology provides us with exemplary accounts of the stages through which a man (sic - he had other things to say about women) must pass in his lifetime; and it's amusing to note how clearly his own long life divides into his own five units of myth.

The Origins

Campbell begins, as heroes should, in humble circumstances, the son of a modestly prosperous New York salesman. There are intimations of the great Quest that lies ahead of him: at the age of six, he is taken to see Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and develops a precocious interest in Native American mythology. Like the infant Hercules strangling snakes, he also reveals exceptional physical prowess. At Columbia University, he becomes a star athlete and sets the record for the half-mile. "I could run as fast a half-mile as anyone in the world at that time," he later recalls.

The Call

A conspicuously gifted student, he looks set for a glittering academic career. After writing an MA thesis on Arthurian literature, Campbell travels to Europe on scholarships, first to Paris, where he studies Old French and Provencal, and then to Munich, where he studies Sanskrit and philology. But he begins to hear siren voices, warning him that he is on too narrow a path. He discovers the novels of Joyce and Thomas Mann, who immediately become artistic touchstones for him; he also discovers Freud and Jung. Excited and discontented in equal measure, he returns to Columbia in 1929 and tells his supervisors "This whole thing" - meaning his Ph.D thesis - "has opened out." They order him to knuckle down. "Well, I just said, "To Hell with it."" Two weeks later, the Stock Market crashes and the Depression begins.

The Wilderness

Campbell liked to point out that founders of religions and other great culture heroes tend to undergo a period of solitary retreat: Buddha went off and sat beneath the banyan tree, Moses climbed the mountain and returned with the tables of the Law, Christ passed forty days in the desert. Campbell's own wilderness years were spent in the more attractive circumstances of Woodstock, where he rented a shack and read solidly for the next five years for nine to twelve hours a day. In the course of this meditation, Campbell develops his principal insight. Like Casaubon in Middlemarch, he is in search of the Key to All Mythologies. He believes that he has found it.

The Gift

The prophet returns from the wilderness with his revelation and begins to gather disciples. In more prosaic terms, in 1934 he is offered a job teaching at Sarah Lawrence, a women's college, and remains there for the next 38 years. He gradually makes his way into print. His first full-length book is a pioneering study of Joyce's Finnegans Wake; his second, is The Hero with a Thousand Faces, which demonstrates that every culture in the world has produced its own version of a heroic "vision quest."

The Triumph

His reputation starts to grow beyond Sarah Lawrence. He writes and edits many books, of which the most substantial are the four volumes of The Masks of God series between 1959 and 1968. He travels, he lectures, he retires full of academic honours in 1972, but continues to write and edit.

Then, one day in 1983, he is called by a very rich young man called George Lucas. Since he has barely seen a film since the talkies came in, he has no idea about all this Star Wars business, but he accepts an invitation to Lucas's Skywalker ranch and is given a screening of the first three films. "I tell you, I was really thrilled.... What I saw was things that had been in my books but rendered in terms of the modern problem, which is man and machine."

The Hero had come home. Lucas and Campbell joined in an embrace of mutual admiration. Lucas proclaimed that, without Campbell, he would not have been able to make sense of his messy first drafts for Star Wars; Campbell compared Star Wars and Goethe's Faust: " I admire what he has done immensely, immensely." Thanks to Lucas's patronage, the octogenarian Campbell basked in public admiration, a prophet finally honoured in his own country. In 1986, conversations between Campbell and the journalist Bill Moyers were filmed at the Skywalker ranch; an edited version was broadcast on television, and the tie-in book, The Power of Myth, became a best-seller.

It was a gloriously happy ending to a career which had begun in stubborn disregard for academic propriety and basic self-interest - which seemed to vindicate the advice Campbell always offered the young as a formula for success in life: "Follow your bliss" - that is to say. find the thing you really want to do and stick to it doggedly, no matter the hardship it costs you, because the Hero always prevails in the end. He died in 1987.

Death, he often said, held no terrors for him, since it was merely the passing of consciousness back to cosmic consciousness, and he may have had a point. If The Phantom Menace can be viewed as a posthumous flowering, then he is proving even more triumphant in death than he was at the end of his life.

Heart-warming stuff. And yet, and yet ... Even allowing that the universal appeal of Lucas's films is indeed rooted in its profound plagiarism of authentic myths, a large, not to say overwhelming objection remains: compared to Beowulf or Gilgamesh or the Odyssey or Faust, the Star Wars series is ... well, a polite word would be "tripe."

To say this is not to discredit Campbell's achievement, or deride his scholarship. One's doubt about the whole strange story concerns quality. If a culture gets the myths it deserves, it seems dismaying that ours has been effortlessly outshone by ancient Sumeria.

One book which early on had inspired Campbell was Oswald Spengler's apocalyptic and pessimistic screed, The Decline of the West; and though it would be hysterical to claim that Star Wars has played any great role in the cretinisation of our world, you'd need the blithely sunny optimism of old Prof. Campbell to believe that it has done very much to arrest the sorry process.

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Creep show: Tim Cockerill in ‘Spider House’

TVEnough to make ardent arachnophobes think twice

Arts and Entertainment
Steven, Ella Jade and Sarah in the boardroom
tvThe Apprentice contestants take a battering from the business mogul
Arts and Entertainment
TV Presenters Ant McPartlin and Dec Donnelly. Winners of the 'Entertainment Programme' award for 'Ant and Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway'
musicAnt and Dec confirmed as hosts of next year's Brit Awards
Arts and Entertainment
Jewel in the crown: drawings from ‘The Letter for the King’, an adventure about a boy and his mission to save a medieval realm
Arts and Entertainment
Juergen Wolf won the Young Masters Art Prize 2014 with his mixed media painting on wood, 'Untitled'
Arts and Entertainment
Iron Man and Captain America in a scene from
filmThe upcoming 'Black Panther' film will feature a solo black male lead, while a female superhero will take centre stage in 'Captain Marvel'
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment
The Imperial War Museum, pictured, has campaigned to display copyrighted works during the First World War centenary
Arts and Entertainment
American Horror Story veteran Sarah Paulson plays conjoined twins Dot and Bette Tattler
tvReview: Yes, it’s depraved for the most part but strangely enough it has heart to it
Arts and Entertainment
The mind behind Game of Thrones George R. R. Martin

Will explain back story to fictional kingdom Westeros

Arts and Entertainment
Dorothy in Return to Oz

film Unintentionally terrifying children's movies to get you howling (in fear, tears or laughter)
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Robert James-Collier as under-butler Thomas

TVLady Edith and Thomas show sad signs of the time
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
The Dad's Army cast hit the big screen

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
JK Rowling is releasing a new Harry Potter story about Dolores Umbridge

Arts and Entertainment
On The Apprentice, “serious” left the room many moons ago and yet still we watch

Arts and Entertainment
The Doctor finds himself in a forest version of London in Doctor Who episode 'In the Forest of the Night'
TVReview: Is the Doctor ever going stop frowning?
Arts and Entertainment
A scene from David Ayer's 'Fury'

Arts and Entertainment
Taylor Swift performs at the 2014 iHeart Radio Music Festival
music review
Arts and Entertainment
Paul Anderson plays Arthur Shelby in Peaky Blinders series two
tvReview: Arthur Shelby Jr seems to be losing his mind as his younger brother lets him run riot in London
Arts and Entertainment
Miranda Hart has called time on her award-winning BBC sitcom, Miranda
Arts and Entertainment
Sir Nicholas Serota has been a feature in the Power 100 top ten since its 2002 launch
Arts and Entertainment
Awesome foursome: Sam Smith shows off his awards
music22-year-old confirms he is 2014’s breakout British music success
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Isis in Syria: A general reveals the lack of communication with the US - and his country's awkward relationship with their allies-by-default

    A Syrian general speaks

    A senior officer of Bashar al-Assad’s regime talks to Robert Fisk about his army’s brutal struggle with Isis, in a dirty war whose challenges include widespread atrocities
    ‘A bit of a shock...’ Cambridge economist with Glasgow roots becomes Zambia’s acting President

    ‘A bit of a shock...’ Economist with Glasgow roots becomes Zambia’s acting President

    Guy Scott's predecessor, Michael Sata, died in a London hospital this week after a lengthy illness
    Fall of the Berlin Wall: History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War

    Fall of the Berlin Wall

    History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War
    How to turn your mobile phone into easy money

    Turn your mobile phone into easy money

    There are 90 million unused mobiles in the UK, which would be worth £7bn if we cashed them in, says David Crookes
    Independent writers remember their Saturday jobs:

    Independent writers remember their Saturday jobs

    "I have never regarded anything I have done in "the media" as a proper job"
    Lyricist Richard Thomas shares his 11-step recipe for creating a hit West End musical

    11-step recipe for creating a West End hit

    Richard Thomas, the lyricist behind the Jerry Springer and Anna Nicole Smith operas, explains how Bob Dylan, 'Breaking Bad' and even Noam Chomsky inspired his songbook for the new musical 'Made in Dagenham'
    Tonke Dragt's The Letter for the King has finally been translated into English ... 50 years on

    Buried treasure: The Letter for the King

    The coming-of-age tale about a boy and his mission to save a mythical kingdom has sold a million copies since it was written by an eccentric Dutchwoman in 1962. Yet until last year, no one had read it in English
    Can instilling a sense of entrepreneurship in pupils have a positive effect on their learning?

    The school that means business

    Richard Garner heads to Lancashire, where developing the 'dragons' of the future is also helping one community academy to achieve its educational goals
    10 best tablets

    The world in your pocket: 10 best tablets

    They’re thin, they’re light, you can use them for work on the move or keeping entertained
    Lutz Pfannenstiel: The goalkeeper who gave up Bayern Munich for the Crazy Gang, Bradford and a whirlwind trawl across continents

    Lutz Pfannenstiel interview

    The goalkeeper who gave up Bayern Munich for the Crazy Gang, Bradford and a whirlwind trawl across continents
    Pete Jenson: Popular Jürgen Klopp can reignite Borussia Dortmund’s season with visit to Bayern Munich

    Pete Jenson's a Different League

    Popular Klopp can reignite Dortmund’s season with visit to Bayern
    John Cantlie video proves that Isis expects victory in Kobani

    Cantlie video proves that Isis expects victory in Kobani

    The use of the British hostage demonstrates once again the militants' skill and originality in conducting a propaganda war, says Patrick Cockburn
    The killer instinct: The man who helps students spot potential murderers

    The killer instinct

    Phil Chalmers travels the US warning students how to spot possible future murderers, but can his contentious methods really stop the bloodshed?
    Clothing the gap: A new exhibition celebrates women who stood apart from the fashion herd

    Clothing the gap

    A new exhibition celebrates women who stood apart from the fashion herd
    Fall of the Berlin Wall: Goodbye to all that - the lost world beyond the Iron Curtain

    The Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Goodbye to all that - the lost world beyond the Iron Curtain