Charlie and the Chocolate Factory turns 50: Why Roald Dahl's story still hits the sweet spot

The language and the tropes of Dahl's classic children's story are now firmly embedded in our culture as Lucy Mangan, author of a new book about the confectionary tale, explains

As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, the story has obviously amply repaid the perceptive reviewers' early faith in it and even more amply put paid to others' dismissals. Not only does it still sell nearly half a million copies a year around the world, but references to it permeate popular culture as abundantly and apparently unstoppably as the smell of chocolate does the air of Wonka's factory.

Its very language has been adopted by our culture at large. "Willy Wonka" is now shorthand for any kind of innovator or eccentric genius. The term has been used to describe everything from a British sweet-maker to a marijuana grower in Seattle.

Having a Golden Ticket is synonymous with getting an access-all-areas pass to anything desirable. Most recently commentators were asking whether Twitter's IPO was "a Golden Ticket or all hype?" It's the go-to theme of anyone setting up a competition. Tesco and Virgin have run Golden Ticket campaigns. Nestlé used it too when it launched one of its Wonkabrand ranges. As did – whisper (or Wispa) it – Cadbury, during the 2012 Olympics, offering seats at the Games to lucky winners. Of course, having a good seat at any of the most popular events at the Olympics was also referred to generally as having a Golden Ticket and, ironically, some of the security arrangements were criticised as "handing a Golden Ticket to terrorists".

This was not the only Charlie reference at the London 2012 Olympics as Russell Brand, arguably Britain's most famous eccentric, showed up at the closing ceremony in an outfit clearly channelling Willy Wonka. Singing "Pure Imagination" – the best-known song from the 1971 film – to the thousands in the stadium and the millions worldwide watching from their homes, he summed up the mood of exuberant, wide-eyed wonder at all they had seen over the previous astonishing few weeks.

The language and the tropes of Roald Dahl's 50-year-old book are now firmly embedded in our culture. Some of this can be attributed to the unusual and privileged position children's books hold in our lives. The experiences we share in childhood – the books we read, the TV programmes we watch and, indeed, the sweets we eat – later become rare moments of connection between strangers, and within and among generations.

But it is our books that bind us most. They last longer than sweets, and withstand re-reading better than television withstands re-watching. We love them more passionately, and often we get a second bite at the cherry when we return to read them to our own children. In 2012, research by the University of Worcester found that Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was among the most common children's book adults had read – in a list with Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and The Wind in the Willows. Such a finding suggests that this is not a book that people are ever going to abandon or forget.

 

Not many modern stories have embedded themselves either as wholly or as firmly in the collective consciousness as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory has. Mel Stuart's 1971 film has helped enormously, of course. Although, this isn't to say that the book wouldn't have endured without the film – far from it. After all, as we know, the film only took on its second life when video became popular in the 1980s. Indeed, Charlie also inspired a video game in 1985. By this decade, Charlie had been a bestseller for more than 20 years and the rest of Roald Dahl's books habitually stormed the charts, without any help from anyone other than the author and his armies of fans spreading the word from child to child, school to school, country to country, all round the world.

But when a film adaptation of a book is disseminated at least once a year across millions and millions of homes and viewers, and taken almost as much to heart as the book itself is – well, then you might say you've got a Golden Ticket to the infiltration of just about every area of pop culture there is.

It has been endlessly and lovingly parodied everywhere, from The Simpsons to Saturday Night Live. Innumerable other shows and writers – as well as a surprising number of rappers and other musicians – have referenced or borrowed from it. The Family Guy episode "Wasted Talent" (2000) is a tribute to the book/film. Homage to Willy Wonka is paid in South Park too, in the "A Ladder to Heaven" episode (2002). The Simpsons has a little Charlie and the Chocolate Factory obsession. In "The Ziff Who Came to Dinner" (2004), Artie asks Lisa if her father reads stories to her. "He tried once," she replies. "But he got confused and thought the book was real. He's still looking for that chocolate factory. It consumes him."

Roald Dahl, author of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, pictured in 1971 Roald Dahl, author of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, pictured in 1971 (Getty Images)
Such uses and references are a testament to the widespread nature of Charlie's fame and enduring hold on our hearts and imaginations, depending as they do on an immediate, collective understanding of the original. Their creators know that they can rely on any average audience to get the joke. This is never more true than when it comes to the successful generation of memes: those little snatches of humour, or clutch of film frames, or evocative photos or facial expressions plucked out of their original context, given a little creative twist and packaged up as jpegs and sent out into the cyberworld.

Read more: Roald Dahl museum wins tax case
Unseen Road Dahl chapter deemed 'too subversive' released
Joanne Harris speaks out over new Roald Dahl book cover

The infinite adaptability of Wonka's mercurial nature and Gene Wilder's enigmatic portrayal have proved irresistible to the inventors of these little snippets that live or die according to the instantaneous recognition and quick rush of memory and association they induce. They are a little reminder of our shared knowledge, a little reminder of a common delight. There's something about all these jokes, references, spin-offs and memes that chimes happily with the subversive undertow of Charlie.

In addition to the hundreds of amateur cooks and candymakers whose Roald Dahl-inspired creations can be seen on a thousand blogs , Tumblr, Pinterest and Instagram shrines to their interests, professional chocolatiers, bakers and chefs around the world cite Charlie as their childhood inspiration. And, even if they don't, as soon as they reach the headlines, they will almost certainly be described as the Willy Wonka of the West Village/pastry/everything from soup to nuts.

Gene Wilder with the Oompa Loompas in the original movie Gene Wilder with the Oompa Loompas in the original movie
Dylan Lauren, creator of the Dylan's Candy Bar chain of stores, remembers seeing the film when she was six, after which she spent years obsessed with sweets and chocolate. She once filled in a college application form with an essay on "Why I Am Like An Everlasting Gobstopper", and after graduating she travelled the world, discovering new forms of confectionery. She finally realised her chocolate factory-inspired childhood dream when in 2001 she opened her first Candy Bar in Manhattan. "Lots of people call me 'the Candy Queen' or the modern-day Willy Wonka!" she says in her book Dylan's Candy Bar: Unwrap Your Sweet Life. "But I have yet to figure out how to get a chocolate river running through the middle of America." Wait. Do I smell a sequel or what? Mr Burton, Mr Mendes, when either of you has a minute...

Molecular gastronomist Heston Blumenthal – probably the closest thing we have in the UK to a real-life Willy Wonka – once created an entire four-course meal in tribute to his "childhood hero" from the book he read with "complete and utter wonderment" when he was a boy. It was served to celebrity guests who rapidly transformed into giggling, delighted children – a reminder of the emotional heft of food and how potent the combination of that and childhood books and memories is, and surely will remain.

This is an edited extract of 'Inside Charlie's Chocolate Factory', by Lucy Mangan (Penguin, £20), which is published today

Arts and Entertainment
Art on their sleeves: before downloads and streaming, enthusiasts used to flick through racks of albums in their local record shops
musicFor Lois Pryce, working in a record shop was a dream job - until the bean counters ruined it
Arts and Entertainment
Serial suspect: the property heir charged with first-degree murder, Robert Durst
TV review
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

ebooks
Arts and Entertainment
Igarashi in her

Art Megumi Igarashi criticises Japan's 'backwards' attitude to women's sexual expression

Arts and Entertainment
Could Ed Sheeran conquer the Seven Kingdoms? He could easily pass for a Greyjoy like Alfie Allen's character (right)

tv Singer could become the most unlikely star of Westeros

Arts and Entertainment
Beyonce, Boris Johnson, Putin, Nigel Farage, Russell Brand and Andy Murray all get the Spitting Image treatment from Newzoids
tvReview: The sketches need to be very short and very sharp as puppets are not intrinsically funny
Arts and Entertainment
Despite the controversy it caused, Mile Cyrus' 'Wrecking Ball' video won multiple awards
musicPoll reveals over 70% of the British public believe sexually explicit music videos should get ratings
Arts and Entertainment
Lena Headey as Cersei Lannister and Ian Beattie as Meryn Trant in the fifth season of Game of Thrones

TV
Arts and Entertainment

book review
Arts and Entertainment
It's all in the genes: John Simm working in tandem with David Threlfall in 'Code of a Killer'

TV review
Arts and Entertainment
Far Right and Proud: Reggies Yates' Extreme Russia

TV review
Arts and Entertainment
Kanye West was mobbed in Armenia after jumping into a lake

music
Arts and Entertainment
The show suffers from its own appeal, being so good as to create an appetite in its viewers that is difficult to sate in a ten episode series

Game of Thrones reviewFirst look at season five contains some spoilers
Arts and Entertainment
Judi Dench and Kevin Spacey on the Red Carpet for 2015's Olivier Awards

Ray Davies' Sunny Afternoon scoops the most awards

Theatre
Arts and Entertainment
Proving his metal: Ross Poldark (played by Aidan Turner in the BBC series) epitomises the risk-taking spirit of 18th-century mine owners

Poldark review
Arts and Entertainment
Eddie Redmayne is reportedly favourite to play Newt Scamander in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them

film
Arts and Entertainment
Tom Hardy stars in dystopian action thriller Mad Max: Fury Road

film
Arts and Entertainment
Josh, 22, made his first million from the game MinoMonsters

Grace Dent

Channel 4 show proves there's no app for happiness
News
Disgraced Top Gear presenter Jeremy Clarkson
people
Arts and Entertainment
Game face: Zoë Kravitz, Bruce Greenwood and Ethan Hawke in ‘Good Kill’

film review

Arts and Entertainment
Living like there’s no tomorrow: Jon Hamm as Don Draper in the final season of ‘Mad Men’

TV review

  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Revealed: Why Mohammed Emwazi chose the 'safe option' of fighting for Isis, rather than following his friends to al-Shabaab in Somalia

    Why Mohammed Emwazi chose Isis

    His friends were betrayed and killed by al-Shabaab
    'The solution can never be to impassively watch on while desperate people drown'
An open letter to David Cameron: Building fortress Europe has had deadly results

    Open letter to David Cameron

    Building the walls of fortress Europe has had deadly results
    Tory candidates' tweets not as 'spontaneous' as they seem - you don't say!

    You don't say!

    Tory candidates' election tweets not as 'spontaneous' as they appear
    Mubi: Netflix for people who want to stop just watching trash

    So what is Mubi?

    Netflix for people who want to stop just watching trash all the time
    The impossible job: how to follow Kevin Spacey?

    The hardest job in theatre?

    How to follow Kevin Spacey
    Armenian genocide: To continue to deny the truth of this mass human cruelty is close to a criminal lie

    Armenian genocide and the 'good Turks'

    To continue to deny the truth of this mass human cruelty is close to a criminal lie
    Lou Reed: The truth about the singer's upbringing beyond the biographers' and memoirists' myths

    'Lou needed care, but what he got was ECT'

    The truth about the singer's upbringing beyond
    Migrant boat disaster: This human tragedy has been brewing for four years and EU states can't say they were not warned

    This human tragedy has been brewing for years

    EU states can't say they were not warned
    Women's sportswear: From tackling a marathon to a jog in the park, the right kit can help

    Women's sportswear

    From tackling a marathon to a jog in the park, the right kit can help
    Hillary Clinton's outfits will be as important as her policies in her presidential bid

    Clinton's clothes

    Like it or not, her outfits will be as important as her policies
    NHS struggling to monitor the safety and efficacy of its services outsourced to private providers

    Who's monitoring the outsourced NHS services?

    A report finds that private firms are not being properly assessed for their quality of care
    Zac Goldsmith: 'I'll trigger a by-election over Heathrow'

    Zac Goldsmith: 'I'll trigger a by-election over Heathrow'

    The Tory MP said he did not want to stand again unless his party's manifesto ruled out a third runway. But he's doing so. Watch this space
    How do Greek voters feel about Syriza's backtracking on its anti-austerity pledge?

    How do Greeks feel about Syriza?

    Five voters from different backgrounds tell us what they expect from Syriza's charismatic leader Alexis Tsipras
    From Iraq to Libya and Syria: The wars that come back to haunt us

    The wars that come back to haunt us

    David Cameron should not escape blame for his role in conflicts that are still raging, argues Patrick Cockburn
    Sam Baker and Lauren Laverne: Too busy to surf? Head to The Pool

    Too busy to surf? Head to The Pool

    A new website is trying to declutter the internet to help busy women. Holly Williams meets the founders