China in writing: Marathon men of Beijing

Will the Olympics show that China's rulers enjoy the 'Mandate of Heaven'? Justin Wintle on new histories of an ancient system

In 1793, a British trade mission to China was firmly rebuffed by the emperor Qianlong. Europe had nothing that was of any interest. Two centuries later, Western nations were being infiltrated by Chinese agents bent on industrial and military espionage. After 200 years of sometimes harrowing instability, China is back on its feet and ready to celebrate. Yet parts of China are still ruled as colonies, prompting "terrorist" insurgency, dissidents are imprisoned, and cripples have been cleared from Beijing's streets. The Beijing Olympics are as much a political statement as a sporting event. Shades of Munich 1936?

China's city-rich eastern seaboard, with a population in excess of the US, prospers mightily. Meanwhile, close on a billion souls in the interior are trapped in a dismal poverty unalleviated by adequate educational and health-care provision. Thus, it may be said, has it ever been. At times - during the Han, Tang, Song and Ming dynasties - Chinese civilisation outshone all others. But the human price paid for its marvels - whether its archaic bronze production, the First Emperor's Mausoleum, the Great Wall, or the Grand Canal - has always been high.

Across 3,000 years, political ideologies have come and gone, but one constant has been the rigorous subordination of all but the most privileged to the viability of the Middle Kingdom. Even under the Communist Party's avowedly socialist regime, wage-bargaining is barely countenanced. Chinese labour is enduringly plentiful, and perennially exploited. The core reason is not hard to identify. Just because it is so large, populous and diverse, China can only be held together by authoritarian government. As history shows, when the centre breaks China disintegrates into dire factionalism, most recently in 1912, with the final collapse of the Qing dynasty. Yet invariably the pendulum swings back again. As one regime forfeits the "Mandate of Heaven" - for want of any actual mechanism of accountability, the imaginary source of political legitimacy - so sooner or later it is assumed by another, always at the hands of a dictatorial strongman. If he succeeds in rebinding the empire, then by definition he merits heaven's approval.

Three new histories explore China's authoritarian traditions. The cyclical ebb-and-flow is a main theme of John Keay's absorbingly readable China: a History (Harper Press, £25), as it has been of other histories, not least those compiled by the Chinese themselves. Indeed, while the Chinese may boast an almost uninterrupted tradition of historiography dating to the middle of the first millennium BC, the same tradition is also one of relentless spin and propaganda. As each dynasty compiled a record of its predecessor, so each emphasised why it deserved the Mandate. For the Chinese, writing history is not so much a matter of objectively reconstituting the past as bolstering the present.

In his pleasingly cultured account of the great sweep of China's evolution (at one point, Confucius is likened to Dr Johnson), Keay takes sceptical cognisance of this. Regularly he challenges the judgements of the dynastic historians, particularly as they adversely affect such rulers as Wang Mang and the Empress Wu Zetian, who, though they governed China effectively enough, did themselves no service when they failed to establish their own dynastic houses. Keay also suggests that the Mongol invasion of the 13th century - of all "barbarian" incursions the most resented - spared the empire from another bout of fragmentation, lining it up nicely for the conservatively-minded Ming a century later.

Yet at the last fence Keay draws up short. He takes his story only as far as the Communist triumph of 1949, dispatching what has followed, including the excesses of Mao Zedong, in a threadbare epilogue. "And the rest," he writes, '"is headlines." Tibetans and Xingjian's Muslim Uighurs may presently find themselves under the cosh, but nothing unusual about that, Keay intimates.

But an antidote is to hand. Jonathan Fenby's Penguin History of Modern China (Allen Lane, £30) is every column-inch a newsdesk blockbuster, packed with facts and breathless drama as well as quick-fix sketches of its main protagonists and quotable quotes. Chiang Kaishek's neo-fascist Nationalist (Guomindang) party is memorably compared to a toilet that "however often you flush it, still stinks", in the words of a 1920s Russian Comintern agent.

Fenby's intricate narrative, taking us from the unsettlingly messianic Taiping rebellion of the mid-19th century through to the post-Mao economic boom, is very much that of a seasoned pressman determined to compel his readers. Inevitably, Mao himself commands centre-stage - to begin with as the wily survivor imposing himself on a struggling communist movement, then as the "Great Helmsman", the leader-turned-psychopath scourging his own people with the Great Leap Forward and, from 1966 until his death in 1976, the infamous Cultural Revolution.

Tens of millions died as a result of Mao's "mass-line" campaigns, and yet he was accommodated by a majority of his comrades. The reasons? Fear, and the bald fact that, like other strongmen before him, he reunified China after 40 years of mayhem. At the heart of the Cultural Revolution was a war on the "Four Olds": old thoughts, old culture, old customs, and old habits. But not included was the historic integrity of the Chinese empire, which Mao restored.

Fenby - a former editor of the South China Morning Post as well as of The Observer - concludes that, for all its newfound economic prowess, "politically the People's Republic is in a time warp that can be traced back to 221 BC. [It] does not fit into a conventional global category". Apprised of Keay's book, he might concede that, politically, China is its own category. Yet in timely fashion Keay and Fenby complement each other, just as, as the Olympics open, both are complemented by Jasper Becker's mischievously-titled City of Heavenly Tranquility: Beijing in the History of China. (Allen Lane, £20).

Combining a profound knowledge of China's capital with intimate reportage, Becker is able to pursue his quarry thematically as well as chronologically. The result is a rich, rewarding tapestry that includes illuminating chapters on eunuchs, Peking Opera and a gifted generation of writers and artists mown down during the Cultural Revolution.

As might be expected of the author of Hungry Ghosts, which first exposed the full horrors of Mao's Great Leap Forward, lamentation outbids celebration. The Forbidden City apart, old Beijing, with all its humdrum variety and charm, its thousands of shrines and courtyard houses, has vanished, "bulldozed to rubble" to make way for an unappetisingly futuristic metropolis of public buildings, apartment blocks and shopping malls. To achieve this, Becker tells us, after 1997 President Jiang Zemin press-ganged a million-strong peasant workforce while hundreds of thousands of Beijingers were made homeless, perhaps as a punishment for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Like all else in the empire, urban renewal brooks no dissent or public consultation. Ironically though, the new Beijing seems to have been inspired by Le Corbusier, Albert Speer and other such dehuma nising Western architectural planners.



Justin Wintle's biography of Aung San Suu Kyi, 'Perfect Hostage', is published by Arrow

The story continues... books that unlock China today

Beijing Coma
Ma Jian (Chatto)

Impossible to publish in China, this landmark novel by a dissident in exile has already claimed a place as a classic work of witness. Shot in the Tiananmen bloodbath of 1989, Dai Wei lies comatose. In his mind, he revisits the idealism and the naivety of the student protest movement, while outside the bulldozers of a wealth-chasing country crush memories and hopes.

The Good Women Of China
Xinran (Vintage)

When Xinran Xue's radio programmme, Words on the Night Breeze, began, it let the demons of memory out of the post-Mao bottle. Chinese women of all backgrounds told their stories of suffering and survival through the Cultural Revolution and beyond. Their shocking testimonies lie behind nearly every family history in the land.

20 Fragments Of A Ravenous Youth
Xiaolu Guo (Chatto)

In the novel that made her name in China, Xiaolu Guo delivers a typically beguiling blend of chick-lit romance, lyrical wistfulness and droll social satire. Adrift in the scary, smoggy boom-town of Beijing, country-girl Fenfang fails to make it in the movies, tumbles from flat to flat and lover to lover, but keeps her wits about her.

What Does China Think?
Mark Leonard (Fourth Estate)

Bookstore shelves groan with accounts of China's economic ascent. But few Sinologists bother to report on the lively debates among the country's thinkers and policy-makers. Leonard fills this gap with a survey of the fierce arguments about human rights, development and China's place in the world. A hundred flowers bloom – though, still, largely in the shadows.

Beijing Time
Michael Dutton, Hsiu-ju Stacy Lo & Dong Dong Wu (Harvard)

This engrossing book merges travel writing, sociology and streetwise reportage. From Mao's tomb to designer malls, karaoke bars to "Pandaman", who parodies Olympic hype, these intellectual sleuths search for clues to the hidden city beneath the headline stories. Their Beijing hums with ghosts of the past, as well as with every kind of futuristic dream.

PROMOTED VIDEO
Arts and Entertainment
Gothic revival: artist Dave McKean’s poster for Terror and Wonder: The Gothic Imagination
Exhibition
Arts and Entertainment
Diana Beard has left the Great British Bake Off 2014

TV
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment
Lisa Kudrow, Courtney Cox and Jennifer Anniston reunite for a mini Friends sketch on Jimmy Kimmel Live

TV
Arts and Entertainment
TVDessert week was full of the usual dramas as 'bingate' ensued
Arts and Entertainment
Clara and the twelfth Doctor embark on their first adventure together
TVThe regulator received six complaints on Saturday night
Arts and Entertainment
Vinyl demand: a factory making the old-style discs
musicManufacturers are struggling to keep up with the resurgence in vinyl
Arts and Entertainment
David Baddiel concedes his show takes its inspiration from the hit US series 'Modern Family'
comedyNew comedy festival out to show that there’s more to Jewish humour than rabbi jokes
Arts and Entertainment
Puff Daddy: One Direction may actually be able to use the outrage to boost their credibility

music
Arts and Entertainment
Suha Arraf’s film ‘Villa Touma’ (left) is set in Ramallah and all the actresses are Palestinian

film
Arts and Entertainment
Madame Vastra and Jenny Flint kiss in Doctor Who episode 'Deep Breath'

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Steve Carell in the poster for new film 'Foxcatcher'
filmExclusive: First look at comic actor in first major serious role
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Kingston Road in Stockton is being filmed for the second series of Benefits Street
arts + entsFilming for Channel 4 has begun despite local complaints
Arts and Entertainment
Led Zeppelin

music
Arts and Entertainment
Radio presenter Scott Mills will be hitting the Strictly Come Dancing ballroom
TV
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment
The Doctor and Clara have their first real heart to heart since he regenerated in 'Deep Breath'
tv
Arts and Entertainment
Beyonce performs in front of a Feminist sign at the MTV VMAs 2014

music
Arts and Entertainment
Miley Cyrus has taken home the prize for Video of the Year at the MTV Video Music Awards 2014

music
Arts and Entertainment
Peter Paige and Scott Lowell in Queer as Folk (Season 5)
tvA batch of shows that 'wouldn't get past a US network' could give tofu sales an unexpected lift
Arts and Entertainment
books... but seller will be hoping for more
Independent
Travel Shop
the manor
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on city breaks Find out more
santorini
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on chic beach resorts Find out more
sardina foodie
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on country retreats Find out more
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Ukraine crisis: The phoney war is over as Russian troops and armour pour across the border

    The phoney war is over

    Russian troops and armour pour into Ukraine
    Potatoes could be off the menu as crop pests threaten UK

    Potatoes could be off the menu as crop pests threaten UK

    The world’s entire food system is under attack - and Britain is most at risk, according to a new study
    Gangnam smile: why the Chinese are flocking to South Korea to buy a new face

    Gangnam smile: why the Chinese are flocking to South Korea to buy a new face

    Seoul's plastic surgery industry is booming thanks to the popularity of the K-Pop look
    From Mozart to Orson Welles: Creative geniuses who peaked too soon

    Creative geniuses who peaked too soon

    After the death of Sandy Wilson, 90, who wrote his only hit musical in his twenties, John Walsh wonders what it's like to peak too soon and go on to live a life more ordinary
    Caught in the crossfire of a cyber Cold War

    Caught in the crossfire of a cyber Cold War

    Fears are mounting that Vladimir Putin has instructed hackers to target banks like JP Morgan
    Salomé's feminine wiles have inspired writers, painters and musicians for 2,000 years

    Salomé: A head for seduction

    Salomé's feminine wiles have inspired writers, painters and musicians for 2,000 years. Now audiences can meet the Biblical femme fatale in two new stage and screen projects
    From Bram Stoker to Stanley Kubrick, the British Library's latest exhibition celebrates all things Gothic

    British Library celebrates all things Gothic

    Forthcoming exhibition Terror and Wonder: The Gothic Imagination will be the UK's largest ever celebration of Gothic literature
    The Hard Rock Café's owners are embroiled in a bitter legal dispute - but is the restaurant chain worth fighting for?

    Is the Hard Rock Café worth fighting for?

    The restaurant chain's owners are currently embroiled in a bitter legal dispute
    Caribbean cuisine is becoming increasingly popular in the UK ... and there's more to it than jerk chicken at carnival

    In search of Caribbean soul food

    Caribbean cuisine is becoming increasingly popular in the UK ... and there's more to it than jerk chicken at carnival
    11 best face powders

    11 best face powders

    Sweep away shiny skin with our pick of the best pressed and loose powder bases
    England vs Norway: Roy Hodgson's hands tied by exploding top flight

    Roy Hodgson's hands tied by exploding top flight

    Lack of Englishmen at leading Premier League clubs leaves manager hamstrung
    Angel Di Maria and Cristiano Ronaldo: A tale of two Manchester United No 7s

    Di Maria and Ronaldo: A tale of two Manchester United No 7s

    They both inherited the iconic shirt at Old Trafford, but the £59.7m new boy is joining a club in a very different state
    Israel-Gaza conflict: No victory for Israel despite weeks of death and devastation

    Robert Fisk: No victory for Israel despite weeks of devastation

    Palestinians have won: they are still in Gaza, and Hamas is still there
    Mary Beard writes character reference for Twitter troll who called her a 'slut'

    Unlikely friends: Mary Beard and the troll who called her a ‘filthy old slut’

    The Cambridge University classicist even wrote the student a character reference
    America’s new apartheid: Prosperous white districts are choosing to break away from black cities and go it alone

    America’s new apartheid

    Prosperous white districts are choosing to break away from black cities and go it alone