The guru of bliss unending

Dermot Clinch on a biography that tries to capture the supreme virtues of Tagore, India's Renaissance man RABINDRANATH TAGORE Andrew Robinson and Krishna Dutta Bloomsbury £25

Philip Larkin was once asked for his considered opinion of the great poet Rabindranath Tagore. "An Indian has written to ask me", he wrote to a friend, "what I think of Rabindrum Tagore: feel like sending him a telegram, `FUCK ALL. LARKIN' ". There was always, of course, a savage edge to Larkin's indifference, but it seems likely that here he was stating the accepted, and still prevalent, view of Tagore. In Europe his reputation was once stratospheric, but now we rarely bother. In India, on the other hand, his stock still is extraordinarily high - so high, indeed, that one Bengali critic could recently write that "no man in the whole range of known history can rival Tagore's all- comprehending genius, equally splendid in thought, in creation, and in action."

The authors of this biography, one suspects, adhere privately to the Bengali view, however much they try not to let it show. Even their subtitle - "The Myriad-minded Man" - smacks of a pre-emptive strike, claiming admiration for their subject before he has earned it. Indeed, it turns out that the phrase itself derives from an official encomium, delivered on the awarding to Tagore of an honorary Oxford doctorate in 1940. "By the sanctity of his life and character", the Chief Justice of India announced, Tagore had "won for himself the praise of all mankind". His myriad-mindedness was evident: no mere poet, he was also a musician "famous in his art", an upholder of learning and doctrine, a defender of liberties and a philosopher.

He was, to cut it short, the Indian Renaissance man, a judgement amply borne out by this biography. It was his poems that won him the Nobel Prize, but they were barely even half the story. Oxford left off its list of achievements Tagore's paintings (something of a sensation in Paris in the Thirties), his plays, essays, political writings, even his experiments in agronomy. They also failed to mention that he turned his hand in later life to the explanation of scientific theory; and that he counted among his friends men as varied as Einstein, Gandhi and William Butler Yeats. It was not for any single quality, wrote Nehru the day Tagore died in 1941, but for the "tout ensemble of his virtues" that Tagore, along with Gandhi, would be reckoned supreme among the great men of the age.

Tagore's reputation will ultimately rest, at least in India, on his educational projects, his "rural reconstruction", his Bengali and Indian patriotism, his revivifying of Bengali language and literature, and his spiritual guidance for an entire country ("The Great Sentinel", Gandhi called him). Shantiniketan, Tagore's ashram-cum-spiritual university in Bengal, and the poet's home for most of his life, was one of India's great experiments in applied spirituality. There Tagore hoped to educate his country and a chosen few ambassadors from foreign lands in the wisdom of the East. For some time Shantiniketan was a place of high prestige, with even Indira Gandhi among its alumni. Now, however, its value is symbolic only and its educational institutions, we are told, of which Tagore was so proud, are nowhere taken seriously.

In the West, Tagore's fame rested on slimmer, though momentarily as firm, foundations. With the publication in 1913 of a small, unimposing book of verses called Gitanjali Tagore won almost instant celebrity, and the Nobel Prize. These days, the commotion surrounding the book seems almost ludicrous, but then it was heartfelt. Reading the manuscript of the poems "on trains and omnibuses", wrote Yeats in his introduction, he had had frequently to put the book down, "lest some stranger would see how much it moved me". He was not alone: the semi-biblical tone of the verses, their thees and thous and promise of bliss unending, caused an outbreak of love for both poetry and poet. Like some archetypal guru, his beauty is described as "radiant, almost incandescent". Tagore began to attract acolytes. One visited him in 1913 and reported back that at last she could imagine "a powerful and gentle Christ". When Wilfrid Owen went off to fight in 1918, never to return, Tagore's poems were lodged in his knapsack.

At such moments as these the story of Tagore's life - moving from the difficult and private into the open and public sphere - begins at last to hold our imagination. At other times, Dutta and Robinson's narrative is curiously unmoving: full of fact, unemotional, and worryingly keen to impress us with Tagore's human fallibility. Tagore spoke out against child marriage, yet he married his daughters young, we are properly told; or, he was a liberal at home but pro-Fascist abroad (Mussolini seemed "modelled body and soul by the chisel of a Michelangelo").

The cumulative effect of all this punctilio ought to be an expanded view of Tagore. In the event, it is the reverse. The more the authors insist on his humanity, the more we suspect that what they're selling, deep down, is just another saint.

Arts and Entertainment
War veteran and father of Peter and Laust Thoger Jensen played by Lars Mikkelson

TVBBC hopes latest Danish import will spell success

Arts and Entertainment
Carey Mulligan in Far From The Madding Crowd
FilmCarey Mulligan’s Bathsheba would fit in better in The Hunger Games
Arts and Entertainment
Pandas-on-heat: Mary Ramsden's contribution is intended to evoke the compound the beasts smear around their habitat
Iart'm Here But You've Gone exhibition has invited artists to produce perfumes
Arts and Entertainment
U2's Songs of Innocence album sleeve

tvU2’s latest record has been accused of promoting sex between men

Arts and Entertainment
Alison Steadman in Inside No.9
tvReview: Alison Steadman stars in Inside No.9's brilliant series finale Spoiler alert
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

ebooks
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

    Bread from heaven

    Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
    Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

    How 'the Axe' helped Labour

    UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power
    Rare and exclusive video shows the horrific price paid by activists for challenging the rule of jihadist extremists in Syria

    The price to be paid for challenging the rule of extremists

    A revolution now 'consuming its own children'
    Welcome to the world of Megagames

    Welcome to the world of Megagames

    300 players take part in Watch the Skies! board game in London
    'Nymphomaniac' actress reveals what it was really like to star in one of the most explicit films ever

    Charlotte Gainsbourg on 'Nymphomaniac'

    Starring in one of the most explicit films ever
    Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers

    Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi

    The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers
    Vince Cable interview: Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'

    Vince Cable exclusive interview

    Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'
    Iwan Rheon interview: Game of Thrones star returns to his Welsh roots to record debut album

    Iwan Rheon is returning to his Welsh roots

    Rheon is best known for his role as the Bastard of Bolton. It's gruelling playing a sadistic torturer, he tells Craig McLean, but it hasn't stopped him recording an album of Welsh psychedelia
    Russell Brand's interview with Ed Miliband has got everyone talking about The Trews

    Everyone is talking about The Trews

    Russell Brand's 'true news' videos attract millions of viewers. But today's 'Milibrand' interview introduced his resolutely amateurish style to a whole new crowd
    Morne Hardenberg interview: Cameraman for BBC's upcoming show Shark on filming the ocean's most dangerous predator

    It's time for my close-up

    Meet the man who films great whites for a living
    Increasing numbers of homeless people in America keep their mobile phones on the streets

    Homeless people keep mobile phones

    A homeless person with a smartphone is a common sight in the US. And that's creating a network where the 'hobo' community can share information - and fight stigma - like never before
    'Queer saint' Peter Watson left his mark on British culture by bankrolling artworld giants

    'Queer saint' who bankrolled artworld giants

    British culture owes a huge debt to Peter Watson, says Michael Prodger
    Pushkin Prizes: Unusual exchange programme aims to bring countries together through culture

    Pushkin Prizes brings countries together

    Ten Scottish schoolchildren and their Russian peers attended a creative writing workshop in the Highlands this week
    14 best kids' hoodies

    14 best kids' hoodies

    Don't get caught out by that wind on the beach. Zip them up in a lightweight top to see them through summer to autumn
    Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The acceptable face of the Emirates

    The acceptable face of the Emirates

    Has Abu Dhabi found a way to blend petrodollars with principles, asks Robert Fisk