Columns: A good idea from... Theophrastus
Alain de Botton
Alain de Botton is a philosopher, writer and television presenter. His books include Essays in Love (published when he was only 23), How Proust Can Change Your Life (1997), Status Anxiety (2004) and Religion for Atheists (2012)
Sunday 21 November 1999
Unfortunately, there are simply far more people in the world than there are types of people. After a certain age, you start recognising the types, carbon copies of other people you already know: the bald literary guy, the buckteethed sweetie, the short, red-faced, right-wing snob. Someone you meet at the office reminds you of someone you knew at school. On holiday, you get to know someone who is the spitting image, in face and character, of a friend from home. Soon you find yourself saying to certain people, "I know someone just like you..."
This phenomenon must have struck the ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus (c371-287BC), because he wrote a book called the Characters in which he tried - for the first time in history - to list all of the main human types (rather as Aristotle had tried to identify the main animal types). In his list, he included the miser, the show-off, the choleric and the superstitious man - and reading him today, it's frightening how clearly you can recognise people you know in 1999 in the descrip-tions of Ancient Greeks. "The superstitious man typically tries to guard against pollution by constantly washing his hands and sprinkling himself from a sacred spring," Theophrastus wrote, "and by chewing leaves of the sacred laurel; these precautions keep him busy the whole day. And should a cat chance to cross his path, he goes not a step further until he has tossed three stones across the road or until somebody else passes by... Any time mice have gnawed holes in his barley sack, he consults some interpreter of omens about what should be done; and when the answer is `Send it to the shoemaker's for a patch' he refuses to listen - he turns away angrily and atones with a sacrifice. He is also likely to keep purifying his house all the time; owls hooting while he is out for a walk upset him, and tombs, dead bodies and women in childbirth seem like terrible omens."
I know someone like this. She doesn't chew laurel leaves, and her anxieties are psychological rather than religious, but she's recognisably the same type that Theophrastus had in mind.
In a sense, it's an affront to our dignity to realise that we are just "types", standard collections of traits that keep cropping up throughout history. Yet perhaps we shouldn't feel too depressed, for along with the realisation that we are not so special comes the thought that neither are are we so alone.
TV reviewBroadcasting House was preparing for a visit from Prince Charles spoiler alert
Glastonbury Michael Eavis reveals final headline act 'most likely' British pair
Film Ewan McGregor joins star-studded Beauty and the Beast cast as Lumiere
TVThe Island with Bear Grylls under fire after male contestants kill and eat rare crocodile
Grace Dent on TV The Secret Life of the Pub is sexist, ageist and a breath of fresh air
Arts & Ents blogs
- 1 Migrant crisis: Greek soldier saved 20 people singlehandedly off Rhodes beach
- 2 Sofyen Belamouadden murder: The inside story of a crime that horrified Britain
- 3 Company breaks open Apple Watch to discover what it says is 'planned obsolescence'
- 4 Aaron and Melissa Klein: Oregon anti-gay bakers ordered to pay $135,000 after refusing to make cake for same-sex wedding
- 5 UK weather: Britain braced for snow as arctic air mass moves in
Poldark, series 1 finale, review: How a costume drama became a Sunday night swoon-fest
Al Pacino admits he was nearly fired from The Godfather and it's still his most 'difficult role'
Warner Music owner Len Blavatnik tops Sunday Times Rich List
Game of Thrones season 5 episode 3, review: Sansa and manhood-lopping torturer Ramsay Bolton - really?
The day I starred in Only Fools and Horses
General Election 2015: Chuka Umunna on the benefits of immigration, humility – and his leader Ed Miliband
The sickening truth about food banks that the Tories don't want you to know
Migrant boat disaster: Ukip candidate mocks victims in sickening Twitter post
Nigel Farage wants the BBC to stop making programmes like Doctor Who, Strictly Come Dancing, and Top Gear
Global warming: Scientists say temperatures could rise by 6C by 2100 and call for action ahead of UN meeting in Paris
General Election 2015: Britain would become a 'communist dictatorship' under Ed Miliband and Nicola Sturgeon, claims wife of Michael Gove