Friday Book: The long wait for the world's end
Paul Vallely is visiting professor in Public Ethics at the University of Chester and a senior research fellow at the Brooks World Poverty Institute at the University of Manchester. He writes on ethical, political and cultural issues. He has a fortnightly column in the Independent on Sunday and also writes for the New York Times and the Church Times. His latest book is Pope Francis – Untying the Knots. He was co-author of the report of the Commission for Africa and has chaired several development charities.
Friday 09 July 1999
BY EUGEN WEBER, HUTCHINSON, pounds 18.99
SO WE have survived. The End of the World was, according to some interpreters of Nostradamus, supposed to come last Sunday. But if you feel cheated at missing it, don't worry. Between now and the end of the year, there are numerous other opportunities for Armageddon. Apocalypse is in the air.
The usual assumption is that this is something to do with the new millennium, or with a sense of fin de siecle at least. But according to Eugen Weber, the eschatological impulse is always with us. Those who dismiss it as the obsession of a lunatic fringe are likely to miss something crucial in their understanding of one of the key influences on human history.
In support of this thesis, he produces some interesting material. Time and its divisions are social constructs through which we discover significance in the random events of our lives. But they are no less significant for that. (Why else would suicides peak on Mondays, or heart attacks at the start and end of the year?)
Once years themselves become entities they, like other organisms, grow weary. With the end of a century comes a sense of decrepitude and decadence. Which perhaps explains why, at the end of the 19th century, Liberty fabrics were said by doomsayers to engender pederasty and the bicycle was seen as another nail in the coffin of civilisation.
The first Christians expected no such degeneration. Christ, they thought, would return in their lifetime. But as the years passed there was no Second Coming, and the Church became an institution that distrusted enthusiasm. In the fifth century, St Augustine, troubled by contradictions between the accounts of Jesus's origin in the gospels of Luke and Mark, decided that they were to be read symbolically. Thenceforth, the wild, fantastic Judgement Day visions of the Book of Revelation were also to be read as theology rather than prophecy.
Yet apocalyptism lingered, surfacing especially at times of political crisis or social change, but always there. Those who took it literally were not just the primitives and ill-educated, Weber argues. Among believers that the end of the world was imminent in their time were great men such as Milton and Cromwell. The discoverer of oxygen, Joseph Priestley, and the inventor of logarithms and the notion of decimal fractions, John Napier, were others. Isaac Newton's writings on the Apocalypse were products of his prime rather than his dotage. Other believers included the social reformer and opponent of slavery, Lord Shaftesbury, and the suffragette, Christabel Pankhurst, who eventually gave up on votes for women and began to preach the Second Coming.
Nor was all this merely a private belief. Visions of apocalypse influenced actions. Columbus's motivation in discovering the New World was to bring about the age of universal conversion preceding the end of the world, which he thought was about 155 years away. Cromwell re-admitted the Jews to England to hasten the advancing time of the Lord's return, while Lord Salisbury later opposed Jewish emancipation because he wanted the Jews to return to Zion and rebuild the Temple - one of Revelation's pre-requisites for the Second Coming. The Second World War military hero Orde Wingate went to Palestine with the aim of helping biblical prophecies come true.
The problem with Professor Weber's thesis is that, after the Enlightenment, notions of Apocalypse began to seep out of educated consciousness. Over the century which followed, the Church's most eminent theologians began to talk about myth and metaphor, and emptied Christianity of much of its literalism.
So Weber's long and somewhat desultory catalogue of believers becomes less and less mainstream the nearer he gets to the present. He is reduced to Hare Krishnas and the Nation of Islam, and those who have become victims of their own eschatological certainty in Jonestown or Waco; in the Solar Temple, Heaven's Gate or Aum Shinrikyo cults.
He has a brief respite with the presidency of Ronald Reagan, which worked in the perspective of Apocalypse and Armageddon. Reagan's secretary of the interior, James Watt, told Congress in 1981: "I don't know how many future generations we can count on until the Lord returns." But, although polls show that 53 per cent of adult Americans expect Christ's Second Coming quite soon, this all descends into the banal - as with Pat Robertson's plans on how the Last Days might be televised. Will Jesus's radiance be too bright for the cameras, he wonders. The interpretative conclusion that Weber might have provided after his catalogue of the bizarre is sadly lacking.
In the end, all apocalyptic prophecies are attempts to interpret their times. Which is why our own most real fears of Doomsday are environmental. Pollution, over-population, agricultural exhaustion or greenhouse gases are our Four Horsemen. That, of course, would have been a different book - less lurid, perhaps, but more frightening.
game of thrones reviewWarning: spoilers
North London meets The Exorcist in eerie suburban drama
Filming to begin on two new series due to be aired on Dave from next year
Arts & Ents blogs
- 1 Lucy Hawking: Stephen Hawking's daughter writes impassioned open letter to Katie Hopkins about rights of disabled people
- 2 How the language you speak changes your view of the world
- 3 Russell Brand backs Ed Miliband: 'You gotta vote Labour'
- 4 General Election 2015: 14-year-old boy asks Nick Clegg – 'can you kill Katie Hopkins?'
- 5 Uploading pictures to find out how old you are gives Microsoft the right to post them wherever they want
The C-Word - review: Sheridan Smith shines in a warm, honest adaptation of Lisa Lynch's book about living with cancer
Top Gear: Jodie Kidd, Philip Glenister and Guy Martin 'in advanced talks' to join show
X-Men Apocalypse: First look at Jubilee and Jean Grey played by Game of Thrones star Sophie Turner
American Horror Story: Hotel Angela Bassett set to make 'lots of trouble' with Lady Gaga in season 5
Game of Thrones season 5 episode 4 - review: Sansa is in danger of becoming another footnote in Westeros' bloody history
Over 50,000 families shipped out of London boroughs in the past three years due to welfare cuts and soaring rents
EU asylum policy is 'a direct threat to our civilisation', says Nigel Farage
The Rothschild Libel: Why has it taken 200 years for an anti-Semitic slur that emerged from the Battle of Waterloo to be dismissed?
General Election 2015: SNP and its activists 'openly racist' towards the English, Farage says
General Election 2015: UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power, Labour warns
Schools forced to act as 'miniature welfare states' with teachers buying underwear and even haircuts for poor pupils