1834: Workhouses for the poor are introduced in Britain.
1963: pounds 2.6m is seized in the Great Train Robbery.
1974: Richard Nixon resigns.
1979: Britain's first nudist beach opens in Brighton.
1889: The screw-top bottle is patented by Dan Ryland of Barnsley, Yorkshire.
1965: The Queen cancels Kim Philby's OBE.
Feast day of St Clare, patron saint of television.
1711: Queen Anne attends the first Royal Ascot race meeting.
Deaths of William Blake (1827), Thomas Mann (1955) and Ian Fleming (1964).
1883: The last quagga dies in Amsterdam zoo.
1949: The clock of Big Ben runs 41 2 minutes slow owing to the weight of starlings on the minute hand.
1980: The first panda cub born in captivity emerges in Mexico.
1964: Peter Allen and John Walby become the last people to be hanged in Britain.
1893: France becomes the first country to introduce motor vehicle registration plates.
1908: The Pier Hippodrome, Folkestone, hosts the first international beauty contest.
1932: Death of Rin-Tin- Tin.
1941: The last execution, of a German spy, in the Tower of London.