He who lives by the score

Elmer Bernstein has written some of the most famous film scores in history, not least those for The Great Escape and The Magnificent Seven. But what exactly is it that makes soundtrack music great? If anyone knows, Elmer will know.

No, Elmer Bernstein confides, he does not hum the soundtracks to his own movies. The 76-year-old composer is responsible for some of the most catchy melodies in film history. His themes for The Magnificent Seven and The Great Escape are whistled the world over. He has scored over 200 films, from To Kill A Mockingbird to Cape Fear, but it is not necessarily his own work which gnaws away at him in his private moments. "My bete noir is an album by my daughter, who is a songwriter. I just can't get it out of my head."

Bernstein was in Belgium recently to give a concert at the Flanders Film Festival, "a melange of music from The Age Of Innocence and The Magnificent Seven," he explains. His most recent movie, Twilight, starring Paul Newman and Susan Sarandon, is released this week. Last month, he also recorded an album of film songs with Neil Diamond. Several new features are also pencilled in on the horizon.

New York-born, he is nicknamed Bernstein West - as in West Coast and Hollywood - to distinguish him from his namesake, Leonard Bernstein, who was known as Bernstein East. A former student with Aaron Copland, he was grey-listed in the McCarthy era, which meant that in the early Fifties he was scoring B-movies such as Robot Monster and Cat Women Of The Moon. His music for Otto Preminger's The Man With The Golden Arm (1956) marked him out as the most distinctive film composer of his generation. Since then, he has been Oscar-nominated 13 times.

He won't be drawn on what constitutes the perfect movie score but his views on certain key scores reveals much about what makes a soundtrack.

The Magnificent Seven (1960)

Dir: John Sturges

Composer: Elmer Bernstein

"Now we get to the question - should the audience notice the music? I really liked the film when I saw it without music. But it was on the slow side. That's alright in a highly personal story, but in an adventure, shoot-'em-up cowboy film, pace is very important. The function of the music was therefore to get on top of the film and to drive it along. Of course, in that kind of case, you do notice the music - and you're meant to. I'm often asked what I consider to be the most important attribute of the film composer. Assuming that the person can write music, which is not in fact always the case these days, what is most important is that he or she is a dramatist."

The Devil and Daniel Webster (1941)

Dir: William Dieterle

Composer: Bernard Herrmann

"This isn't one of Herrmann's best-known titles but it had a great effect on my decision to become a film music composer. It was one of the earliest scores in the history of film music that had a peculiarly American voice. Herrmann fell back on a lot of folk music. If you think about who was writing film music in the United States in the Forties, the names that spring to mind are Miklos Rozsa, Franz Waxman, Max Steiner, Dimitri Tiomkin - these are all people who came from middle Europe, with a middle-European, symphonic sensibility. Along comes Bernard with a plaintive, less orchestrated American folk song idiom - an American sensibility that was very different."

The Heiress (1949)

Dir: William Wyler

Composer: Aaron Copland

"This was Wyler's adaptation of the Henry James novel, Washington Square. Aaron's was obviously very much an American voice. Unfortunately, his score, which was brilliant, was operated on a bit surgically, and not to the advantage of the music. When I did The Age Of Innocence for Scorsese, I went the other way - I went back to middle Europe. That score is unashamedly related to Brahms. These jumped-up, up-market people in the States, well, what would they have been listening to in 1870? They'd have been listening to European music."

Sunset Boulevard (1950)

Dir: Billy Wilder

Composer: Franz Waxman;

and Spellbound (1945)

Dir: Alfred Hitchcock

Composer: Miklos Rozsa

"There's a tremendous sense of excitement about the Sunset Boulevard score. That was Waxman's thing. It's the kind of music that keeps you on the edge of the seat. He did the same in Rebecca. A Waxman score is very different from, say, a Miklos Rozsa score. Rozsa is comfortable and satisfying, but sometimes inventive when you least expect it. The risk he took in Spellbound, using the theremin (one of the earliest electronic instruments) was brave at that time. He takes your attention. You say, "whoo!"

The Man With The Golden Arm (1956)

Dir: Otto Preminger

Composer: Elmer Bernstein

"The Man With The Golden Arm was the first film to use jazz as the main thrust of the entire score. Originally, I wanted to do the score as a concerto to camera for a small jazz group and a large symphony orchestra. As time went on, I decided a small jazz group wouldn't give me the power I needed. I went to speak to Preminger about it. He was a scary character. I thought that he was simply going to throw me out of the office when I told him that what I had in mind was to do the entire score as a jazz- based score. But what he said was something very uncharacteristic for him. He told me that that was what I had been hired for, and that that is what I should go away and do."

Titanic (1997)

Dir: James Cameron

Composer: James Horner

"There are a lot of my colleagues who, for some reason or another, are James Horner bashers. I'm not among them. He's a good composer and I think he has done some extraordinary things. I think that his score for Field Of Dreams is probably the best electronic score that has ever been written. But I didn't like Titanic. James's score wasn't really allowed to work in the film. Half of the time, you couldn't really hear it properly. It was drowned out. Luckily for him, the song survived, but that whole film feels very wrong-footed to me."

Kundun (1997)

Dir: Martin Scorsese

Composer: Philip Glass

"I was very taken with this score. It's interesting that I should be because I have a relationship with Scorsese and it was a film I had wanted to do myself. The basic effect of this kind of minimalism is mesmeric, and anything mesmeric begins to feel spiritual."

Twilight (1997)

Dir: Robert Benton

Composer: Elmer Bernstein

"The best film music can do something which is maybe implicit in the film but not totally explicit. Twilight was an example of where the music is amplifying something implicit in the film. There is obviously a sexual attraction between the two main characters, Susan Sarandon and Paul Newman. In the score, I try to imbue the entire sense of the film with a kind of sexuality. It's not in your face all the time. It takes the form of the chord structure I use, which is slithery, rather than straightforward. All the sounds tend to be below Middle C in that throaty, sexy area. To me, one of the sexiest sounds in the world is the low end of a flute."

Arts and Entertainment
Performers drink tea at the Glastonbury festival in 2010

GlastonburyWI to make debut appearance at Somerset festival

Arts and Entertainment
Lena Headey as Cersei Lannister

TV reviewIt has taken seven episodes for Game of Thrones season five to hit its stride

Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Jesuthasan Antonythasan as Dheepan

FilmPalme d'Or goes to radical and astonishing film that turns conventional thinking about immigrants on its head

Arts and Entertainment
Måns Zelmerlöw performing

Arts and Entertainment
Graham Norton was back in the commentating seat for Eurovision 2015

Arts and Entertainment
Richard Hammond, Jeremy Clarkson and James May on stage

Arts and Entertainment
The light stuff: Britt Robertson and George Clooney in ‘Tomorrowland: a World Beyond’
film review
Arts and Entertainment
Reawakening: can Jon Hamm’s Don Draper find enlightenment in the final ‘Mad Men’?
tv reviewNot quite, but it's an enlightening finale for Don Draper spoiler alert
Arts and Entertainment
Breakfast Show’s Nick Grimshaw

Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
'Youth' cast members Paul Dano, Jane Fonda, Harvey Keitel, Rachel Weisz, and Michael Caine pose for photographers at Cannes Film Festival
Arts and Entertainment
Adam West as Batman and Burt Ward and Robin in the 1960s Batman TV show

Arts and Entertainment
I am flute: Azeem Ward and his now-famous instrument
Arts and Entertainment
A glass act: Dr Chris van Tulleken (left) and twin Xand get set for their drinking challenge
TV review
Arts and Entertainment
MIA perform at Lovebox 2014 in London Fields, Hackney

Arts and Entertainment
Finnish punk band PKN hope to enter Eurovision 2015 and raise awareness for Down's Syndrome

Arts and Entertainment
William Shakespeare on the cover of John Gerard's The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes

Arts and Entertainment

Game of Thrones review
Arts and Entertainment
Grayson Perry dedicates his Essex home to Julie

Potter's attempt to create an Essex Taj Mahal was a lovely treat

Arts and Entertainment
A scene from the original Swedish version of the sci-fi TV drama ‘Real Humans’
Arts and Entertainment
Hugh Keays-Byrne plays Immortan Joe, the terrifying gang leader, in the new film
filmActor who played Toecutter returns - but as a different villain in reboot
Arts and Entertainment
Charlize Theron as Imperator Furiosa in Mad Max: Fury Road
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Why the cost of parenting has become so expensive

    Why the cost of parenting has become so expensive

    Today's pre-school child costs £35,000, according to Aviva. And that's but the tip of an iceberg, says DJ Taylor
    Fifa corruption: The 161-page dossier that exposes the organisation's dark heart

    The 161-page dossier that exposes Fifa's dark heart

    How did a group of corrupt officials turn football’s governing body into what was, in essence, a criminal enterprise? Chris Green and David Connett reveal all
    Mediterranean migrant crisis: 'If Europe thinks bombing boats will stop smuggling, it will not. We will defend ourselves,' says Tripoli PM

    Exclusive interview with Tripoli PM Khalifa al-Ghweil

    'If Europe thinks bombing boats will stop smuggling, it will not. We will defend ourselves'
    Raymond Chandler's Los Angeles: How the author foretold the Californian water crisis

    Raymond Chandler's Los Angeles

    How the author foretold the Californian water crisis
    Chinese artist who posted funny image of President Xi Jinping facing five years in prison as authorities crackdown on dissent in the arts

    Art attack

    Chinese artist who posted funny image of President Xi Jinping facing five years in prison
    Marc Jacobs is putting Cher in the limelight as the face of his latest campaign

    Cher is the new face of Marc Jacobs

    Alexander Fury explains why designers are turning to august stars to front their lines
    Parents of six-year-old who beat leukaemia plan to climb Ben Nevis for cancer charity

    'I'm climbing Ben Nevis for my daughter'

    Karen Attwood's young daughter Yasmin beat cancer. Now her family is about to take on a new challenge - scaling Ben Nevis to help other children
    10 best wedding gift ideas

    It's that time of year again... 10 best wedding gift ideas

    Forget that fancy toaster, we've gone off-list to find memorable gifts that will last a lifetime
    Paul Scholes column: With the Premier League over for another year, here are my end of season awards

    Paul Scholes column

    With the Premier League over for another year, here are my end of season awards
    Heysel disaster 30th anniversary: Liverpool have seen too much tragedy to forget fateful day in Belgium

    Liverpool have seen too much tragedy to forget Heysel

    Thirty years ago, 39 fans waiting to watch a European Cup final died as a result of a fatal cocktail of circumstances. Ian Herbert looks at how a club dealt with this tragedy
    Amir Khan vs Chris Algieri: Khan’s audition for Floyd Mayweather may turn into a no-win situation, says Frank Warren

    Khan’s audition for Mayweather may turn into a no-win situation

    The Bolton fighter could be damned if he dazzles and damned if he doesn’t against Algieri, the man last seen being decked six times by Pacquiao, says Frank Warren
    Blundering Tony Blair quits as Middle East peace envoy – only Israel will miss him

    Blundering Blair quits as Middle East peace envoy – only Israel will miss him

    For Arabs – and for Britons who lost their loved ones in his shambolic war in Iraq – his appointment was an insult, says Robert Fisk
    Fifa corruption arrests: All hail the Feds for riding to football's rescue

    Fifa corruption arrests

    All hail the Feds for riding to football's rescue, says Ian Herbert
    Isis in Syria: The Kurdish enclave still resisting the tyranny of President Assad and militant fighters

    The Kurdish enclave still resisting the tyranny of Assad and Isis

    In Syrian Kurdish cantons along the Turkish border, the progressive aims of the 2011 uprising are being enacted despite the war. Patrick Cockburn returns to Amuda
    How I survived Cambodia's Killing Fields: Acclaimed surgeon SreyRam Kuy celebrates her mother's determination to escape the US

    How I survived Cambodia's Killing Fields

    Acclaimed surgeon SreyRam Kuy celebrates her mother's determination to escape to the US