Science: Is organic food safe?

It is certainly more popular than ever, with supermarkets competing fiercely to offer more lines. But shunning modern methods of agriculture brings its own risks.

Among the distinctly unpleasant odours emanating from the controversy surrounding food safety, one area of agriculture has come up smelling sweet. In the welter of adverse publicity concerning BSE, E coli poisoning and genetically modified (GM) food, organic produce has acquired the mantle of purity and healthiness.

In fact organic food has never been more popular. People assume that it is natural, non-industrialised and therefore problem-free. But just how safe is organic farming?

Investigations both in Europe and in the US have failed to find any difference between organic food and other food in terms of all the major constituents, minerals and vitamins. Every day, each of us eats a quarter of a teaspoonful of carcinogens; 99.99 per cent of these are made naturally by all plants - whether organic, GM or intensively farmed - to inhibit disease organisms and deter consumption by animals and insects.

The remaining 0.01 per cent comes from food preparation and agricultural activities; in part these are carcinogens derived from the frying and smoking of food. Government regulations set this 0.01 per cent level at a concentration between 10,000th and 100,000th of the recommended safe dose.

Pesticide residues are lower in organic food - but not absent. Organic farmers are allowed to use pesticides, but apply them more sparingly and tend not to use the broad-spectrum pesticides - although pyrethrum (a common fly-killer spray) is permitted, because it is found naturally in some plants. Regulations vary from country to country, but antibiotics such as streptomycin are acceptable if they are derived from fermentation.

Organic enthusiasts believe that they are eating the diet of our grandparents; but food safety regulations were not common a century ago, and food contamination by micro-organisms producing mycotoxins - fungal poisons - was much more extensive then. Regulations have changed the situation in only a limited way.

The use of effective fungicides has reduced the risk from mycotoxins in normal food, but not necessarily in organic food. Health-store nuts, for example, may contain aflatoxin (made by the fungus aspergillus), the most potent known carcinogen.

For this reason, microbiological spoilage of organic food is a recognised problem, and most organic produce is rushed more quickly into market; the benefit is that it often tastes fresher. But constant exposure to mycotoxin carcinogens can be expected to have long-term effects, detectable only by continual monitoring. However, there are no current plans to carry out this monitoring.

Such data is hard to find. Alongside the introduction of intensive but strictly regulated agriculture during the last 50 years, human longevity in Britain has increased by five to six years, to its probable biological maximum. Can we claim the same for organic food? No long-term data of comparable present-day organic consumption is available, except with small farming communities such as the Amish in the US. However, consumption by these people of their own completely fresh produce negates direct assessment of the effects of transport and storage on the safety of micro-organisms.

Organic farmers can and do use modern crop varieties, since they have disease resistance and good yields. However these varieties (of, for example, wheat, barley, oats, tomatoes, turnips, sugar beet, blackcurrants, potatoes) acquired their genes from different species by difficult laboratory procedures; for example, rice obtained genes from sorghum wheat. These are not natural plants and they don't survive in fields unless continually cultivated.

These genetically manipulated plants have been used in agriculture for 50 years, starting with triticale (1 million hectares planted world- wide). There has been no noticeable impact on the environment or health of communities, or distrust of organic food, from the incorporation of these foreign genes. More generally, no crop plant can be seriously regarded as completely "natural"; the first act of domestication is to select desirable individuals from the available gene pool and thereby to diminish genetic variability.

There are four concerns about whether organic food is safe. Organic farmers preferably apply cow or pig manure when this is available. It can be infected with the dangerous bacterium E coli 0157 disease organism that lives happily in the guts of cattle. Infection in human beings kills, or leaves victims without functioning kidneys.

Citrobacter freundii lives in pigs' guts and is also potentially lethal. If manure is pasteurised, or if you properly cook contaminated food, then the organism is killed. The problem is to guarantee that this is done.

Oversights do occur. Two outbreaks of E coli 0157 in the US were traced to organic strawberries and lettuce. In Aberdeen, home-made organic goats' cheese initiated an E coli outbreak among children; in Germany an outbreak of Citrobacter that killed one child and damaged nine others was traced to organic parsley treated with pig manure.

Organic farmers use sulphur as a weak pesticide. But sulphur contains lead, a known danger. What is not known is how much of the lead is transferred to the food we eat.

Similarly, organic farmers are allowed to spray crops with bacterial spores to act as a general-purpose insecticide. But earlier this year these spores were found to cause serious, often fatal, lung infections in mice, and to infect wounds and damage human cells in culture. Some people suggest that this technique should be curtailed until further investigations are carried out. And while many organic farmers do use the spores sparingly, serious insect infestations still have to be treated. The image of an organic farmer with spray gun, mask and protective suit does not create a feeling of a natural technology.

Finally, plants react vigorously when attacked by disease organisms and synthesise many chemicals that are carcinogenic. Thus organic cider from apples has much higher patulin levels, and celery has higher levels of psoralen which, without careful harvesting, can cause serious skin burns. Much more investigation is needed into the carcinogen content of organic food as it is sold.

The list goes on. Organic foods cost more, because the farming is more labour-intensive and suffers greater losses to weeds and insects. Organic manures are less effective than chemical fertilisers. To institute organic farming countrywide would mean ploughing up wilderness, hedges and woodland to make up the shortfall compared to intensive farming, and putting people back into farm labour - generally associated with poor pay and long hours. Efficient farming releases land for animals and plants that cannot easily co-exist with any form of agriculture.

But exciting possibilities do exist. To combine the power of genetic modification with an efficient, sustainable agriculture free of requirements for crop sprays. The philosophy of minimal impact upon the world ecosystem is the right one to safeguard the future. You might call it a "third way" of agricultural technology - employing the best of the organic ethos and GM procedures. I, for one, would welcome it.

Professor Anthony Trewavas is a research scientist at the Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Edinburgh

Arts and Entertainment
When he was king: Muhammad Ali training in 'I Am Ali'
Arts and Entertainment
Joel Edgerton, John Turturro and Christian Bale in Exodus: Gods and Kings
film Ridley Scott reveals truth behind casting decisions of Exodus
Arts and Entertainment
An unseen image of Kurt Cobain at home featured in the film 'Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck'
filmThe singers widow and former bandmates have approved project
Arts and Entertainment
Jake Quickenden and Edwina Currie are joining the I'm A Celebrity...Get Me Out Of Here! camp
Arts and Entertainment
George Mpanga has been shortlisted for the Critics’ Choice prize
Arts and Entertainment
Scare tactics: Michael Palin and Jodie Comer in ‘Remember Me’

TVReview: Remember Me, BBC1
Arts and Entertainment
Scare tactics: Michael Palin and Jodie Comer in ‘Remember Me’

TVReview: Remember Me, BBC1
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

Arts and Entertainment
Carrie Hope Fletcher
booksFirst video bloggers conquered YouTube. Now they want us to buy their books
Arts and Entertainment
Damien Hirst
artCoalition's anti-culture policy and cuts in local authority spending to blame, says academic
Arts and Entertainment
A comedy show alumni who has gone on to be a big star, Jon Stewart
tvRival television sketch shows vie for influential alumni
Arts and Entertainment
Jason goes on a special mission for the queen
tvReview: Everyone loves a CGI Cyclops and the BBC's Saturday night charmer is getting epic
Arts and Entertainment
Image has been released by the BBC
Arts and Entertainment
Will there ever be a Friends reunion?
Harry Hill plays the Professor in the show and hopes it will help boost interest in science among young people
arts + ents
Arts and Entertainment
A Van Gogh sold at Sotheby’s earlier this month
Arts and Entertainment

MusicThe band accidentally called Londoners the C-word

Arts and Entertainment
It would 'mean a great deal' to Angelina Jolie if she won the best director Oscar for Unbroken

Film 'I've never been comfortable on-screen', she says

Arts and Entertainment
Winnie the Pooh has been branded 'inappropriate' in Poland
Arts and Entertainment
Lee Evans is quitting comedy to spend more time with his wife and daughter

Arts and Entertainment
American singer, acclaimed actor of stage and screen, political activist and civil rights campaigner Paul Robeson (1898 - 1976), rehearses in relaxed mood at the piano.
filmSinger, actor, activist, athlete: Paul Robeson was a cultural giant. But prejudice and intolerance drove him to a miserable death. Now his story is to be told in film...
Arts and Entertainment
Taylor Swift is dominating album and singles charts worldwide

Arts and Entertainment
Kieron Richardson plays gay character Ste Hay in Channel 4 soap Hollyoaks

Arts and Entertainment
Midge Ure and Sir Bob Geldof outside the Notting Hill recording studios for Band Aid 30

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Homeless Veterans Christmas Appeal: ‘We give them hope. They come to us when no one else can help’

    Christmas Appeal

    Meet the charity giving homeless veterans hope – and who they turn to when no one else can help
    Should doctors and patients learn to plan humane, happier endings rather than trying to prolong life?

    Is it always right to try to prolong life?

    Most of us would prefer to die in our own beds, with our families beside us. But, as a GP, Margaret McCartney sees too many end their days in a medicalised battle
    Thomas Cook's outgoing boss Harriet Green got by on four hours sleep a night - is that what it takes for women to get to the top?

    What does it take for women to get to the top?

    Thomas Cook's outgoing boss Harriet Green got by on four hours sleep a night and told women they had to do more if they wanted to get on
    Christmas jumper craze: Inside the UK factory behind this year's multicultural must-have

    Knitting pretty: British Christmas Jumpers

    Simmy Richman visits Jack Masters, the company behind this year's multicultural must-have
    French chefs have launched a campaign to end violence in kitchens - should British restaurants follow suit?

    French chefs campaign against bullying

    A group of top chefs signed a manifesto against violence in kitchens following the sacking of a chef at a Paris restaurant for scalding his kitchen assistant with a white-hot spoon
    Radio 4 to broadcast 10-hour War and Peace on New Year's Day as Controller warns of cuts

    Just what you need on a New Year hangover...

    Radio 4 to broadcast 10-hour adaptation of War and Peace on first day of 2015
    Cuba set to stage its first US musical in 50 years

    Cuba to stage first US musical in 50 years

    Claire Allfree finds out if the new production of Rent will hit the right note in Havana
    Christmas 2014: 10 best educational toys

    Learn and play: 10 best educational toys

    Of course you want them to have fun, but even better if they can learn at the same time
    Paul Scholes column: I like Brendan Rodgers as a manager but Liverpool seem to be going backwards not forwards this season

    Paul Scholes column

    I like Brendan Rodgers as a manager but Liverpool seem to be going backwards not forwards this season
    Lewis Moody column: Stuart Lancaster has made all the right calls – now England must deliver

    Lewis Moody: Lancaster has made all the right calls – now England must deliver

    So what must the red-rose do differently? They have to take the points on offer 
    Cameron, Miliband and Clegg join forces for Homeless Veterans campaign

    Cameron, Miliband and Clegg join forces for Homeless Veterans campaign

    It's in all our interests to look after servicemen and women who fall on hard times, say party leaders
    Millionaire Sol Campbell wades into wealthy backlash against Labour's mansion tax

    Sol Campbell cries foul at Labour's mansion tax

    The former England defender joins Myleene Klass, Griff Rhys Jones and Melvyn Bragg in criticising proposals
    Nicolas Sarkozy returns: The ex-President is preparing to fight for the leadership of France's main opposition party – but will he win big enough?

    Sarkozy returns

    The ex-President is preparing to fight for the leadership of France's main opposition party – but will he win big enough?
    Is the criticism of Ed Miliband a coded form of anti-Semitism?

    Is the criticism of Miliband anti-Semitic?

    Attacks on the Labour leader have coalesced around a sense that he is different, weird, a man apart. But is the criticism more sinister?
    Ouija boards are the must-have gift this Christmas, fuelled by a schlock horror film

    Ouija boards are the must-have festive gift

    Simon Usborne explores the appeal - and mysteries - of a century-old parlour game