search engines: Serendipity Warfare in the womb
Simon Singh is an author, journalist and TV producer, specialising in science and Mathematics. His latest book is "Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial", co-authored with Edzard Ernst, the world’s first professor of complementary medicine.
Sunday 01 August 1999
The obvious conclusion was that the pancreas controlled sugar metabolism, and for the first time scientists knew that diabetes was somehow the result of a faulty pancreas (or no pancreas at all in the case of this dog). Three decades later, Canadian researchers proved that the pancreas produces insulin, and that this chemical regulates sugar levels. Then, in 1922, insulin (derived from cattle) was used to treat diabetes in people.
More recently, the effects of insulin have illuminated an extra- ordinary conflict within the bodies of pregnant women. David Haig of Harvard University dem-onstrated that foetuses release placental lactogen, a chemical that permeates the mother's body, blocking the effect of the mother's insulin. The foetus is trying to increase its host's blood- sugar level, so that it can harvest the excess sugar for its own benefit. However, the mother cannot afford to be deprived of sugar, because this would endanger her life. Hence, she fights back by secreting more insulin.
In short, there has been an evolutionary tit for tat through the generations, whereby foetuses secrete more lactogen and mothers secrete more insulin, each trying to get ahead of the other. The escalation has been gradual, because if the foetus generates too much lactogen then it will harm the mother, which obviously is not in its own interest. Similarly, if the mother over-reacts with too much insulin then she will harm the foetus, which obviously is not what she wants to do. Consequently, although the levels of lactogen during pregnancy are 1,000 times higher than usual, this is balanced by an increase in insulin.
The insulin battle is only one aspect of the conflict between the foetus and the mother. The foetus also secretes chemicals which constrict the mother's arteries, raising blood pressure and thereby sending more blood to the placenta. This can cause hypertension in the mother. Although Haig's research is throwing new light on pregnancy, his work has not been well-received by some non-scientists. An American Professor of Rhetoric, Language and Culture attacked Haig, labelling his ideas as "male fantasies of warfare in the womb".
Review: Imaginative storytelling returns with vigourfilm
Bannatyne leaves Dragon's DenTV
Arts & Ents blogs
- 1 Howard Jacobson: Let's see the 'criticism' of Israel for what it really is
- 2 Game of Thrones author George RR Martin says 'f*** you' to fans who fear he will die before finishing Westeros saga
- 3 Belgium fan Axelle Despiegelaere lands L'Oreal campaign after World Cup viral photo
- 4 Britney Spears sings 'Alien' without Auto-Tune in embarrassing leaked audio clip
- 5 PornHub begs users to stop uploading video clips of Brazil getting beaten 7-1
Sustained immigration has not harmed Britons' employment, say government advisers
Australia facing international condemnation after turning around Sri Lankans at sea
7/7 memorial defaced on anniversary of 2005 attacks with ‘Blair lied thousands died’ graffiti
Even when it brutalises one of its own teenage citizens, America is helpless against Israel
Socialist Worker called to apologise over ‘vile’ article saying Eton schoolboy Horatio Chapple's death is ‘reason to save the polar bears’
There’s a nasty smell in the political air – and it’s coming from the Tories