The Clash of the Titans actress will perform in the musical, directed by American Psycho's Rupert Goold and due to open at the Adelphi Theatre in the autumn.
The Made in Dagenham musical is based on the 2010 indie movie starring Oscar nominee Sally Hawkins as the gutsy Rita, who leads female Ford factory workers in a 1968 strike against sexual discrimination.
Richard Bean, who wrote One Man, Two Guv'nors, has penned the script, with Jerry Springer: The Opera lyricist Richard Thomas.
David Arnold, who composed music for Casino Royale, Quantum of Solace and the Dagenham film, is behind the score.
Arterton will take on Hawkins' main part for the stage, with Adrian der Gregorian playing her husband Eddie.
"It's an important story that I’m passionate about telling, and we intend to tell it with wit, warmth and, of course, a lot of singing and dancing," Arterton said in a statement.
The former Bond girl has just finished a stint as the Duchess in John Webster's macabre The Duchess of Malfi.
Hawkins told the BBC that she was "really pleased" about the forthcoming project. "I'm very proud of the film and I can't wait to see (the production). If they need me, I'm here."
Previews are scheduled to begin on 9 October (I Can’t Sing-style production delays depending) ahead of an opening on 5 November.