Visual Art: Up close and impersonal

Chuck Close Hayward Gallery, London Chuck Close White Cube, London

Chuck Close is one of the most famous and influential American artists alive, yet in Britain he has never yet had a solo show. Until now, when he has two: a large retrospective of his paintings from the last 30 years at the Hayward, and a small selection of his recent photographs in the minuscule space at White Cube.

Close specialises in very large heads. He paints them, photographs them, digitalises them, and even makes them out of paper pulp in bas-relief. Most of them stand eight or nine feet high; they stare out from the wall directly at you. The artist does not care to call these pieces portraits - there are no captains of industry here, though Close did once take a photograph of President Clinton (and very bland and boring it was too). These are artworks that use the human head as their subject-matter; they are not for hanging in the boardroom. "They are what bottles are to Morandi," Close explained in a talk at the Hayward last week, suggesting that he at least has no problem with the repetitiveness of his basic image.

Over a period of more than 30 years (he is nearing 60), Close has done several different things with his heads, using several different techniques. (A major change of direction in the mid-1980s preceded the life-threatening heart condition which has left him using a wheelchair with his brush strapped to his hand - he has overcome these difficulties while continuing to produce his work in much the same way as before.) His early work, grey and gritty and monotone, is usually described as photorealist: Close starts by taking photographs of his subject, one of which he then transfers to canvas by making blobs on a grid. Each hair on the head, each individual piece of stubble, is painted with the extreme exactitude of the camera lens, and constructed within the unbreakable discipline of a rigid framework.

His later heads are built up with the same mathematical precision, still in the same stern vise, but the works of the last 15 years or so seem to be executed with apparent abandon, using dots and flourishes and squiggles with astonishing exuberance. The heads also appear to have got larger, as the background fades away to the edges and an exploration of the face becomes the artist's principal preoccupation. Ravishing colour replaces the grey tones, with pastel purples and greens of the most lurid and outrageous hue. These paintings have a wonderful tactile quality that has to be relished in the flesh. The flavour and thickness of painting that has the apparent texture of embroidery or patchwork or tapestry is not really available in reproduction.

The essential grid is there in all Close's paintings, but in the more recent works it may be diamond-shaped as well as square, and even, in one dramatic small portrait of Lucas Samaras, circular. The portrait of Samaras, with his hair electrically akimbo like the famous drawing of Struwwelpeter, appears to have been created with all the movement and drama of a spin painting, yet is the result of the most painstaking work. On display at White Cube is an even more startling photograph of Samaras - himself an artist, and no stranger to special effects - in which each individual strand of his backlit hair can be counted.

Discipline and control, of tone and colour as well as design, are essential elements in Close's work, for he is an academic painter by training, schooled at Yale in the 1960s. Comparisons have sometimes been made with Gerhard Richter, that consummate European artist who can wield a brush as though it were a camera and vice versa. Richter is the more significant figure, with a larger range of method and subject. Close, in spite of his artistic and political radicalism, remains recognisably rooted in a local and romantic American tradition into which he might easily fit alongside Frederic Remington and Andrew Wyeth.

The only trace of the year Close spent studying in Vienna in the 1960s, apart from a regard for classical painting and an appreciation of how it was constructed, is a memory of the work of Arcimboldo, whose fantastic portraits are revealed, in close-up, to be made from vegetables. Close's heads often have the same magical quality, with the myriad dots and squiggles, apparently constructed without rhyme or reason, forming an iconic image that never slips from his control.

Close sometimes calls himself a "junior Abstract Impressionist," and his work has all the technique and discipline of abstract painting. Up close to the canvas you see nothing but a gorgeous splash of colour. Take two steps back and the portrait emerges from the apparent abstraction.

The captions on the heads have simple, monosyllabic names like Roy and Phil and Jud, but soon it emerges that several are of the same person, and many are of the artist himself. The sitters are Close's family and friends, and many of these friends have, over the years, become famous. So the numerous heads of Roy turn out to be Roy Lichtenstein, and those labelled Phil are of Philip Glass. Cindy, of course, is Cindy Sherman, while Robert is Robert Rauschenberg.

In the early days, Close was content for the fame of the sitters to be unrecognised, but now he seems to accept that there is an intrinsic interest in who these people actually are. Last year a book was published in which he interviews the people whose heads he once took pictures of. All this may be anecdotally amusing to people familiar with the New York art world, but his work, which is not lacking in a sense of humour of its own, has a more serious purpose. In the years when it was said that painting and portraiture were dead, he has been an isolated but hugely talented voice proclaiming that they are very much alive.

Chuck Close: Hayward Gallery, SE1 (0171 960 5226) to 19 September and White Cube, SW1 (0171 930 5373) to 4 September. 'The Portraits Speak: Chuck Close in Conversation With 27 of His Subjects' is published by Art Resources Transfer (pounds 32)

Charles Darwent returns next week

EXHIBITIONS CHOICE

REMBRANDT BY HIMSELF

NATIONAL GALLERY

WC2 (0171 747 2885)

to 5 Sept

Sixty self-portraits by the Dutch 17th-century master.

NOTORIOUS: HITCHCOCK AND CONTEMPORARY ART

MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, Oxford (01865 722733)

Today to 3 October

Artists respond to Hitch.

OPENING THIS WEEK

DISASTERS OF WAR: CALLOT, GOYA, DIX

Imperial War Museum, SE1 (0171 416 5000) Thurs to 26 Sept

The realities of conflict.

Arts and Entertainment
Jamie Dornan as Christian Grey in Fifty Shades of Grey

film Sex scene trailer sees a shirtless Jamie Dornan turn up the heat

Arts and Entertainment
A sketch of Van Gogh has been discovered in the archives of Kunsthalle Bremen in Germany
arts + ents
Arts and Entertainment
Eleanor Catton has hit back after being accused of 'treachery' for criticising the government.
books
Arts and Entertainment
Fake Banksy stencil given to artist Alex Jakob-Whitworth

art

Arts and Entertainment
'The Archers' has an audience of about five million
radioA growing number of listeners are voicing their discontent; so loudly that even the BBC's director-general seems worried
PROMOTED VIDEO
Arts and Entertainment
Taylor Swift is heading to Norwich for Radio 1's Big Weekend

music
Arts and Entertainment
Beer as folk: Vincent Franklin and Cyril Nri (centre) in ‘Cucumber’
tvReview: This slice of gay life in Manchester has universal appeal
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment

ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment

ebooks
Arts and Entertainment
‘A Day at the Races’ still stands up well today
film
Arts and Entertainment
‘The Royals’ – a ‘twisted, soapy take on England’s first family’
tvAnd its producers have already announced a second season...
Arts and Entertainment
Kraftwerk performing at the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery) museum in Berlin earlier this month
musicWhy a bunch of academics consider German electropoppers Kraftwerk worthy of their own symposium
Arts and Entertainment
Icelandic singer Bjork has been forced to release her album early after an online leak

music
Arts and Entertainment
Colin Firth as Harry Hart in Kingsman: The Secret Service

film
Arts and Entertainment
Brian Blessed as King Lear in the Guildford Shakespeare Company's performance of the play

theatre
Arts and Entertainment
In the picture: Anthony LaPaglia and Martin Freeman in 'The Eichmann Show'

tv
Arts and Entertainment
Anne Kirkbride and Bill Roache as Deirdre and Ken Barlow in Coronation Street

tvThe actress has died aged 60
Arts and Entertainment
Marianne Jean-Baptiste defends Joe Miller in Broadchurch series two

tv
Arts and Entertainment
The frill of it all: Hattie Morahan in 'The Changeling'

theatre
Arts and Entertainment
Gillian Anderson and David Duchovny may reunite for The X Files

tv
Arts and Entertainment
Jeremy Clarkson, left, and Richard Hammond upset the locals in South America
TV
News
A young woman punched a police officer after attending a gig by US rapper Snoop Dogg
people
Arts and Entertainment
Reese Witherspoon starring in 'Wild'

It's hard not to warm to Reese Witherspoon's heroismfilm
Arts and Entertainment
Word up: Robbie Coltrane as dictionary guru Doctor Johnson in the classic sitcom Blackadder the Third
books

Arts and Entertainment
The Oscar nominations are due to be announced today

Oscars 2015
Arts and Entertainment
Hacked off: Maisie Williams in ‘Cyberbully’

Maisie Williams single-handedly rises to the challenge

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Eddie Redmayne in The Theory of Everything and Benedict Cumberbatch in The Imitation Game are both nominated at the Bafta Film Awards
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Isis hostage crisis: The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power

    Isis hostage crisis

    The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power, says Robert Fisk
    Missing salvage expert who found $50m of sunken treasure before disappearing, tracked down at last

    The runaway buccaneers and the ship full of gold

    Salvage expert Tommy Thompson found sunken treasure worth millions. Then he vanished... until now
    Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

    Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

    Maverick artist Grayson Perry backs our campaign
    Assisted Dying Bill: I want to be able to decide about my own death - I want to have control of my life

    Assisted Dying Bill: 'I want control of my life'

    This week the Assisted Dying Bill is debated in the Lords. Virginia Ironside, who has already made plans for her own self-deliverance, argues that it's time we allowed people a humane, compassionate death
    Move over, kale - cabbage is the new rising star

    Cabbage is king again

    Sophie Morris banishes thoughts of soggy school dinners and turns over a new leaf
    11 best winter skin treats

    Give your moisturiser a helping hand: 11 best winter skin treats

    Get an extra boost of nourishment from one of these hard-working products
    Paul Scholes column: The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him

    Paul Scholes column

    The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him
    Frank Warren column: No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans

    Frank Warren's Ringside

    No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans
    Isis hostage crisis: Militant group stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

    Isis stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

    The jihadis are being squeezed militarily and economically, but there is no sign of an implosion, says Patrick Cockburn
    Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action

    Virtual reality: Seeing is believing

    Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action
    Homeless Veterans appeal: MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’

    Homeless Veterans appeal

    MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’ to help
    Larry David, Steve Coogan and other comedians share stories of depression in new documentary

    Comedians share stories of depression

    The director of the new documentary, Kevin Pollak, tells Jessica Barrett how he got them to talk
    Has The Archers lost the plot with it's spicy storylines?

    Has The Archers lost the plot?

    A growing number of listeners are voicing their discontent over the rural soap's spicy storylines; so loudly that even the BBC's director-general seems worried, says Simon Kelner
    English Heritage adds 14 post-war office buildings to its protected lists

    14 office buildings added to protected lists

    Christopher Beanland explores the underrated appeal of these palaces of pen-pushing
    Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

    Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

    Scientists unearthed the cranial fragments from Manot Cave in West Galilee