The book that changed the world is a cliché often used but rarely true, yet 50 years ago this week a book appeared which profoundly altered the way we view the Earth, and our place upon it: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.
This impassioned and angry account of how America's wildlife was being devastated by a new generation of chemical pesticides began the modern environment movement: it awoke the general consciousness that we as humans are part of the natural world, not separate from it, yet we can destroy it by our actions.
A middle-aged marine biologist, Ms Carson was not the first to perceive this; but her beautifully-written book, and the violent controversy it generated, brought this perception to millions around the world.
Down the centuries many people had expressed their love for nature, but Silent Spring and the furore it created gave birth to something more: the widespread, specific awareness that the planet was threatened and needed defending; and the last half-century of environmentalism, the age of Green, the age of Save The Whale and Stop Global Warming, has followed as a natural consequence.
When it began serialisation in The New Yorker on 16 June, 1962 (it was published in full the following September), Silent Spring revealed to a horrified America, or at least, to those who did not know already, that its wildlife was being wiped out on a staggering scale by use of the new generation of synthetic pesticides – compounds made in the laboratory rather than from naturally-occurring substances, which had followed on from the forerunner of them all, the chlorinated hydrocarbon DDT.
In particular, the songbirds of America's countryside and small towns were everywhere falling silent. They had been killed by colossal pesticide spraying programmes, usually from the air, sanctioned in the 1950s by the US Department of Agriculture, individual states and local authorities, and aimed at insect pest threats which turned out to be largely illusory. There was no need for them; their real driver was the American chemical industry which had managed to convince US agriculture that its bright, new range of deadly super-poisons, organochlorines such as aldrin and dieldrin, organophosphates such as parathion and malathion, were just the wonder drugs that farming needed – in huge doses.
Even now, it is hard to read Ms Carson's account of these mass sprayings without incredulity. Tens of millions of acres were covered in poison in campaigns against the spruce budworm, the gypsy moth and the fire ant, none of which succeeded in eradicating their targets, but all of which succeeded in exterminating countless other wild creatures, the American robins on the suburban lawns, the trout in the forest streams, to the bewildered dismay of local people watching it happen around them.
Ms Carson's achievement was to bring the situation to national notice in a remarkable synthesis of dramatic reportage and deep scientific knowledge, explaining exactly what the new pesticides were, how their catastrophic side effects were occurring, and how senseless were the mass spraying campaigns (although she recognised that agricultural pesticides were necessary and did not advocate banning them all). To a reader today, her account is compelling and entirely convincing. Yet it produced an explosion. The US chemical industry, and parts of the country's scientific establishment, lashed out in frenzy against this presumptuous upstart holding them to account with a long and bitter campaign of criticism and personal denigration; and it seemed as if what aroused their ire more than anything was that their opponent was a woman.
A professional biologist from Pennsylvania who had worked for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, she was 55 when Silent Spring appeared. Unmarried and childless after a life spent looking after her mother and her young nephew, she had found emotional solace in a deep friendship with a neighbour at her Maine holiday home, Dorothy Freeman, about which there has inevitably been speculation; certainly, they were very close. Yet Ms Carson was more than a scientist, she was also an acclaimed author, having written a trilogy of highly praised books on the marine environment, one of which, The Sea Around Us of 1951, had been a bestseller.
Thus when Silent Spring appeared, she already had a substantial audience, and the furore stirred up by the US chemical industry only served to boost it a thousandfold; by the end of 1962 alone, three months after full publication, the book had sold half a million copies and public opinion was solidly behind her. (It did nothing to hinder her cause that President John F Kennedy himself took her side and referred Silent Spring to his science advisory committee, which the following year vindicated her stance).
So the madness of the mass poison sprayings came to an end, and the robins and their song returned to America's spring; DDT was banned for agriculture in 1972 (though remaining in use for malaria prevention), and bans on dieldrin and aldrin and other substances followed.
Rachel Carson did not live to see it: she died of cancer in 1964. But her achievement was much more than to end a crazy and murderous assault upon nature, enormous though that was. What she introduced to a mass audience for the first time, in explaining how the catastrophe was happening, was the idea of ecology, of the interconnectedness of all living things. The pesticide falls on the leaf, and the leaf falls to the ground where it is consumed by worms, who also consume the pesticide; and robins consume the worms and consume the pesticide too, and so they die.
In showing how everything in the natural world was linked, she showed how humans could wreck it.
It was truly radical, because it implied – for the first time – that scientific advance and economic growth, closely linked as they were in America, might not be endlessly a good thing. There was the Earth itself to consider.
And that has been at the heart of the movement Silent Spring inspired, which is 50 years old on Saturday.Reuse content