USA: On the spot fines up to dollars 100 in some cities. Pavements 'pretty clean'.

BELGIUM: 1.2 million dogs. Voluntary registration. 'Worse than London, disgusting'.

FRANCE: 9.5 million dogs. Compulsory registration. Fouling fines imposed by traffic wardens. Parisian clean-up operation using 100 motorised pooper scoopers or 'caninettes' costs pounds 4m annually. Pavements 'not too bad'.

GERMANY: 3.6 million dogs. Dog tax around pounds 30. Leash laws; some park areas set aside for dogs. Pavements 'dreadful'.

ICELAND: Dogs banned from Reykjavik and other urban centres until mid-1980s because of worm problems. Now allowed into town; maximum pounds 20 fine for fouling.

IRELAND: 600,000 dogs. National licensing. Dog free zones in parks. Pavements 'better than England'.

ITALY: 5.5 million dogs. Compulsory registration. 'Dogs foul roads and pavements; whatever the laws are they are not enforced.'

NETHERLANDS: 1.8 million dogs. Voluntary registration. No fouling legislation; 'the streets of Amsterdam are not clean'.

SPAIN: 3 million dogs. Registration and licensing scheme. Pavements 'not that clean'.

SWEDEN: 700,000 dogs. Stockholm has leash laws, poop scoop schemes and dog free zones. Streets 'perfectly clear. Very little mess of any kind.'