Long-haul sick notes: what you can get and how not to get it
Tuesday 29 July 1997
Typhoid is mostly transmitted through contaminated food or water: travellers to India and Pakistan in particular are advised to take precautions. A vaccine is available, but good hygiene habits - clean and boil or thoroughly cook everything you eat and drink - is important.
Hepatitis A is the commonest preventable disease caught by tourists. It is most commonly transmitted in water or uncooked food - boiling kills the bug. Recovery from the disease is long - up to 18 months. The death rate increases with age. Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for people visiting Africa, much of Asia, South and Central America and the Middle East.
Encephalitis is carried by biting ticks which proliferate in heavily forested, humid regions. A vaccine is available which can give long-term protection, although insect repellents reduce the risk of being bitten.
Japanese B encephalitis is a strain of the disease carried by infected mosquitoes in parts of Asia. It is preventable with a vaccine.
Non-paralytic polio is rare among travellers - 0.7 cases for every 30,000 to 100,000 travellers - and is prevented by use of vaccine.
Cholera is becoming a big problem in parts of South America: it is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting and severe diarrhoea. There is only a handful of cases each year among people in the UK, and current advice is to follow the traveller's hygiene code, paying special attention to procuring safe water supplies.
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne infection, can be fatal, and has spread from Central and South America to parts of the US. There is no specific treatment or vaccine. Best to avoid being bitten; see Malaria.
Yellow fever is another mosquito-borne infection and is endemic in regions of Africa and South America. Symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain and jaundice. A vaccine is available which gives long-term protection.
Travellers' diarrhoea is one of the most common afflictions, affecting around 40 per cent of people. Good hygiene standards can help: use bottled water and, don't eat or drink anything you can't boil, roast or peel. In cases of severe diarrhoea it is important to rehydrate the body.
HIV and hepatitis B are two behavioural risks for travellers. Both are most commonly transmitted by sexual contact and by intravenous drug use. Safe sex is strongly recommended. A vaccine is available for Hepatitis B.
Life & Style blogs
Alexander McQueen at auction: What makes a really great piece of fashion?
A bottle of wine a day is not bad for you and abstaining is worse than drinking, scientist claims
No female ejaculation, please, we’re British: a history of porn and censorship
Stressed nurses are 'forced to choose between health of patients and their own'
Pornhub: Kim Kardashian's sex tape is the most-watched porn video of all-time
- 1 Nigel Farage: Me vs Russell Brand on Question Time – he's got the chest hair but where are his ideas?
- 2 Harry Potter fans can apply to the Hogwarts-inspired College of Wizardry
- 3 Jessica Chambers: 19-year-old woman 'doused with lighter fluid and burned alive' in the US
- 4 Russell Brand calls Nigel Farage 'poundshop Enoch Powell' in BBC Question Time debate
- 5 Orange Wednesdays are no more
£65000 - £80000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Finance Director required to jo...
£15000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is a unique opportunity fo...
£50000 per annum + 26 days holiday,pension: Ashdown Group: A highly successful...
£27000 per annum + pension + holidays: The Jenrick Group: A Quality Technician...