One swine flu shot enough for pregnant women, two for kids

A single dose of swine flu vaccine produces a robust immune response in pregnant women, one of the groups at high risk of dying from (A)H1N1 influenza, but young children need two shots, US clinical trials have shown.

"The immune responses seen in healthy pregnant women are comparable to those seen in healthy adults at the same time point after a single vaccination, and the vaccine has been well tolerated," Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said in a statement.

No safety issues were reported during the trials, which began on September 9 and tested 120 women, all in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.

Twenty-one days after they were given the swine flu vaccine, 92 percent of pregnant women who received a single 15-microgram dose and 96 percent of expectant mothers who were given one, 30-microgram dose showed a robust immune response, showed the initial results of the trials, which are still ongoing.

The findings of the trials back up recommendations made last week by the World Health Organization (WHO), that "adults -- including pregnant women -- and adolescents, beginning at 10 years old" be given a single swine flu shot.

Separate tests conducted in the United States have shown that children aged six months to 35 months and three to nine years should have two doses of the H1N1 vaccination, Fauci told reporters Monday.

"Those younger groups didn't have a good immune response eight to 10 days after receiving the first dose, and 21 days after that first dose, their response was still suboptimal -- 25 percent for the very young group and 55 percent for the intermediary group," Fauci told reporters.

"However, there was a very sharp increase in immune response after they received the second dose, such that 100 percent of the younger group and 94 percent of three- to nine-year-olds gave a robust immune response eight to 10 days after the second dose. That's where we want them to be," Fauci said.

The WHO has urged national authorities that have made children a priority for early vaccination to administer "one dose of vaccine to as many children as possible" while waiting for the results of studies to determine what the optimal dosage is for young kids.

Teenagers and young adults continue to account for the majority of cases of H1N1 flu around the world, "with rates of hospitalization highest in very young children," the WHO has said.

Up to 10 percent of swine flu patients require hospitalization, and up to a quarter of those have to be admitted to an intensive care unit, said the WHO.

"From seven-10 percent of all hospitalized patients are pregnant women in their second or third trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women are 10 times more likely to need care in an intensive care unit when compared with the general population," the WHO said.

Since the outbreak of the new strain of H1N1 flu began in April, at least 100 pregnant women have been hospitalized in intensive care units in the United States and at least 28 expectant mothers have died of pandemic swine flu, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Pregnant women and mothers with young children have been turned away from flu vaccination clinics organized by state and county health authorities as vaccine supply has been far outstripped by demand.

Expectant mothers have to have the injectable form of the swine flu vaccine, which is made with killed H1N1 virus, and not the nasal spray, which is made with live, greatly weakened virus and is not advised for pregnant women, children under the age of two and people with chronic health conditions such as asthma.

The vaccine tested on the pregnant women in the United States did not contain the preservative thimerosal, which contains mercury, or an immune-boosting substance known as an adjuvant.



Life and Style
Steve Shaw shows Kate how to get wet behind the ears and how to align her neck
healthSteven Shaw - the 'Buddha of Breaststroke' - applies Alexander Technique to the watery sport
Arts and Entertainment
The sight of a bucking bronco in the shape of a pink penis was too much for Hollywood actor and gay rights supporter Martin Sheen, prompting him to boycott a scene in the TV series Grace and Frankie
Arts and Entertainment
Lena Headey as Cersei Lannister
TVSPOILER ALERT: It's all coming together as series returns to form
footballShirt then goes on sale on Gumtree
Life and Style
ebookNow available in paperback
Terry Sue-Patt as Benny in the BBC children’s soap ‘Grange Hill’
voicesGrace Dent on Grange Hill and Terry Sue-Patt
Arts and Entertainment
Performers drink tea at the Glastonbury festival in 2010
Arts and Entertainment
Twin Peaks stars Joan Chen, Michael Ontkean, Kyle Maclachlan and Piper Laurie
tvName confirmed for third series
Cameron Jerome
footballCanaries beat Boro to gain promotion to the Premier League
Arts and Entertainment
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs General

    Guru Careers: Software Developer / C# Developer

    £40-50K: Guru Careers: We are seeking an experienced Software / C# Developer w...

    Guru Careers: Software Developer

    £35 - 40k + Benefits: Guru Careers: We are seeking a Software Developer (JavaS...

    SThree: Trainee Recruitment Consultant / Resourcer

    £18000 - £23000 per annum + Commission: SThree: As a Trainee Recruitment Consu...

    Ashdown Group: UI Developer - (UI, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, AngularJS)

    £25000 - £40000 per annum: Ashdown Group: UI Developer - (UI, JavaScript, HTML...

    Day In a Page

    Abuse - and the hell that came afterwards

    Abuse - and the hell that follows

    James Rhodes on the extraordinary legal battle to publish his memoir
    Why we need a 'tranquility map' of England, according to campaigners

    It's oh so quiet!

    The case for a 'tranquility map' of England
    'Timeless fashion': It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it

    'Timeless fashion'

    It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it
    If the West needs a bridge to the 'moderates' inside Isis, maybe we could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive after all

    Could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive?

    Robert Fisk on the Fountainheads of World Evil in 2011 - and 2015
    New exhibition celebrates the evolution of swimwear

    Evolution of swimwear

    From bathing dresses in the twenties to modern bikinis
    Sun, sex and an anthropological study: One British academic's summer of hell in Magaluf

    Sun, sex and an anthropological study

    One academic’s summer of hell in Magaluf
    From Shakespeare to Rising Damp... to Vicious

    Frances de la Tour's 50-year triumph

    'Rising Damp' brought De la Tour such recognition that she could be forgiven if she'd never been able to move on. But at 70, she continues to flourish - and to beguile
    'That Whitsun, I was late getting away...'

    Ian McMillan on the Whitsun Weddings

    This weekend is Whitsun, and while the festival may no longer resonate, Larkin's best-loved poem, lives on - along with the train journey at the heart of it
    Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath in a new light

    Songs from the bell jar

    Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath
    How one man's day in high heels showed him that Cannes must change its 'no flats' policy

    One man's day in high heels

    ...showed him that Cannes must change its 'flats' policy
    Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

    Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

    Dominic Rossi of Fidelity says his pressure on business to control rewards is working. But why aren’t other fund managers helping?
    The King David Hotel gives precious work to Palestinians - unless peace talks are on

    King David Hotel: Palestinians not included

    The King David is special to Jerusalem. Nick Kochan checked in and discovered it has some special arrangements, too
    More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years

    End of the Aussie brain drain

    More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years
    Meditation is touted as a cure for mental instability but can it actually be bad for you?

    Can meditation be bad for you?

    Researching a mass murder, Dr Miguel Farias discovered that, far from bringing inner peace, meditation can leave devotees in pieces
    Eurovision 2015: Australians will be cheering on their first-ever entrant this Saturday

    Australia's first-ever Eurovision entrant

    Australia, a nation of kitsch-worshippers, has always loved the Eurovision Song Contest. Maggie Alderson says it'll fit in fine