A new car I could afford. Or could I?

Welcome to the slippery world of the personal contract purchase. By Paul Horrell

Look before you lease. Recently I needed to buy a car. Having trawled the second-hand stock at local dealers, I was agreeably surprised to end up with a brand new car that wore a windscreen sticker price of nearly double the figure I'd first had in mind yet was eminently affordable: the monthly loan payments were much as I'd budgeted for. There just had to be a catch.

Indeed there was. More than one, in fact. But the lure of a brand-new car is enough to persuade around a third of all Britain's private buyers to join the same kind of complex finance deal as I did. Welcome to the slippery world of the personal contract purchase (PCP).

Three years ago, the arrival of the personal contract purchase must have seemed like magic: suddenly private buyers could finance a new car on monthly payments far lower than those of traditional hire-purchase or bank loans. This works because you are deferring much of the cost until the end of the loan.

A new Peugeot 106 Rallye provided my education into the workings of a PCP. I could find pounds 1,500 as deposit. I wanted to keep the payments to as near pounds 150 a month as I could. I'd be doing about 12,000 miles a year, and would finance the car over two years. (It's important to be realistic at the start about your annual mileage, because PCPs have expensive clauses in which the dealer can charge for every mile you've driven beyond the agreed total.) The salesman went to work. The first thing he did was to lay down a "minimum guaranteed future value" (MGFV) for the car at the time I was due to part with it, two years and 24,000 miles down the road.

My monthly payments were based on the difference between the MGFV (pounds 4,500) and the car's new price (pounds 8,750 after I'd haggled) less the pounds 1,500 deposit - that's pounds 8,750 less pounds 4,500 less pounds 1,500 which comes to pounds 2,750. Spread that sum across the agreed 24 months, add interest on the whole cost, and that's the basis of the monthly payment calculation: pounds 188 in my case. On traditional hire purchase I'd have been shelling out an impossible pounds 350 or so.

PCP monthly payments are this low because you aren't actually paying off the MGFV component of the new price, whereas on HP or a loan, you buy the entire car. No, at the end of the PCP period, the fun is only just starting.

After those 24 months, several options present themselves. The first is to pay the MGFV as a lump-sum and keep the car, at which point you formally assume ownership. In my case, that could mean borrowing the pounds 4,500 from the bank, and repaying over two further years. The second option is simply to hand the car back, pay no more and take the bus home. That's why the final payment is known as the minimum guaranteed future value - it's the minimum trade-in allowance for that vehicle at that age, so the dealer is in effect taking it off your hands for exactly the amount you owe on it. But not only will you be stranded, this doesn't please the dealer either. He wants to sell you another car. So he offers you a third choice.

The dealer will usually make you an offer for the car higher than the MGFV, provided you use the car as a trade-in for a new one. After my two years, another similar new Peugeot will probably have risen to pounds 10,000. The MGFV, remember, is pounds 4,500. But if I deal hard the dealer might offer me pounds 5,500 for my car as a trade-in. So I'll have pounds 1,000 as equity in my car (the difference between the final payment and the dealer's bid), and will be able to use that towards a new deposit. The monthly payments would be barely higher than before, and I'd be back in a shiny new motor.

Ford Credit, which now has 150,000 private customers driving Fords on the Options PCP, reports that at the end of their agreements 70 per cent of them take that third option: they roll forward into a new scheme for a new car.

Satisfied customers? Yes, but with one proviso. It's hard for them to switch to another manufacturer, so they are sucked back into the same maker's PCP cycle. When the PCP term is drawing to an end, you can't legally sell the car because it's got outstanding finance on it. So if I wanted to swap the Peugeot for a Fiat, say, I'd have to borrow pounds 4,500 to pay off the MGFV (and realise the equity, too), sell the car, and repay that short-term loan. Only then could I set about buying another vehicle.

However, there's a bigger catch if you're not careful. Tempted by low monthly payments and using your existing car as a deposit, you might buy a car you can't afford to keep. Imagine you currently own a pounds 5,000 vehicle. Trading that in, and using the money as deposit, will enable you to buy, say, a pounds 15,000 new one on a PCP for perhaps pounds 250 a month over two years. The MGV might well be pounds 9,000. Even if that car is worth pounds 11,000 two years hence, you'll have only pounds 2,000 equity, - pounds 3,000 less than you started out with. Moral: make sure, before starting a PCP, that you have a clear view of the position at the end.

Other ways to buy a car

Personal leasing: A new scheme, whereby you don't have the option to buy at the end of the lease. You pay three instalments up front, then, after three months, start paying the monthly rental. Normally all maintenance is included.

Bank loan: Interest rates might be high but you own the car, so you're free to sell at any time.

50/50: Offered only by certain manufacturers. You pay half the car's price up front, then nothing for two years. Then you pay the other 50 per cent. So, you have an interest-free loan: but the second payment will be perilously close to the car's total worth at two years old.

Hire purchase: Monthly payments look expensive unless you lay down a big deposit, but you're paying off the whole price so the car is yours at the end without a final lump-sum MGFV payment.

Voices
Homeless Veterans charity auction: Cook with Angela Hartnett and Neil Borthwick at Merchants Tavern
charity appealTime is running out to secure your favourite lot as our auction closes at 2pm tomorrow
Arts and Entertainment
J Jefferson Farjeon at home in 1953
booksBooksellers say readers are turning away from modern thrillers and back to golden age of crime writing
Sport
Amir Khan is engaged in a broader battle than attempting to win a fight with Floyd Mayweather
boxing Exclusive: Amir Khan reveals plans to travel to Pakistan
News
Stacey Dooley was the only woman to be nominated in last month’s Grierson awards
mediaClare Balding and Davina McCall among those overlooked for Grierson awards
PROMOTED VIDEO
Voices
Joseph Kynaston Reeves arguing with Russell Brand outside the RBS’s London offices on Friday
voicesDJ Taylor: The great tradition of St Paul and Zola reached its nadir with a worker's rant to Russell Brand
News
Twitchers see things differently, depending on their gender
scienceNew study shows that birdwatching men have a lot in common with their feathered friends...
News
i100
Arts and Entertainment
Caroline Flack became the tenth winner of Strictly Come Dancing
tvReview: 'Absolutely phenomenal' Xtra Factor presenter wins Strictly Come Dancing final
Life and Style
A still from the 1939 film version of Margaret Mitchell's 'Gone with the Wind'
life
News
Xander van der Burgt, at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
scienceA Kew Gardens botanist has found 25 new large tree species - and he's sure there are more out there
Arts and Entertainment
British actor Idris Elba is also a DJ and rapper who played Ibiza last summer
film
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

ES Rentals

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs General

    Recruitment Genius: Finance Director

    £65000 - £80000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Finance Director required to jo...

    Recruitment Genius: Medico-Legal Assistant

    £15000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is a unique opportunity fo...

    Ashdown Group: (PHP / Python) - Global Media firm

    £50000 per annum + 26 days holiday,pension: Ashdown Group: A highly successful...

    The Jenrick Group: Quality Inspector

    £27000 per annum + pension + holidays: The Jenrick Group: A Quality Technician...

    Day In a Page

    The week Hollywood got scared and had to grow up a bit

    The week Hollywood got scared and had to grow up a bit

    Sony suffered a chorus of disapproval after it withdrew 'The Interview', but it's not too late for it to take a stand, says Joan Smith
    From Widow Twankey to Mother Goose, how do the men who play panto dames get themselves ready for the performance of a lifetime?

    Panto dames: before and after

    From Widow Twankey to Mother Goose, how do the men who play panto dames get themselves ready for the performance of a lifetime?
    Thirties murder mystery novel is surprise runaway Christmas hit

    Thirties murder mystery novel is surprise runaway Christmas hit

    Booksellers say readers are turning away from dark modern thrillers and back to the golden age of crime writing
    Anne-Marie Huby: 'Charities deserve the best,' says founder of JustGiving

    Anne-Marie Huby: 'Charities deserve the best'

    Ten million of us have used the JustGiving website to donate to good causes. Its co-founder says that being dynamic is as important as being kind
    The botanist who hunts for giant trees at Kew Gardens

    The man who hunts giants

    A Kew Gardens botanist has found 25 new large tree species - and he's sure there are more out there
    The 12 ways of Christmas: Spare a thought for those who will be working to keep others safe during the festive season

    The 12 ways of Christmas

    We speak to a dozen people who will be working to keep others safe, happy and healthy over the holidays
    Birdwatching men have a lot in common with their feathered friends, new study shows

    The male exhibits strange behaviour

    A new study shows that birdwatching men have a lot in common with their feathered friends...
    Diaries of Evelyn Waugh, Virginia Woolf and Noël Coward reveal how they coped with the December blues

    Famous diaries: Christmas week in history

    Noël Coward parties into the night, Alan Clark bemoans the cost of servants, Evelyn Waugh ponders his drinking…
    From noble to narky, the fall of the open letter

    From noble to narky, the fall of the open letter

    The great tradition of St Paul and Zola reached its nadir with a hungry worker's rant to Russell Brand, says DJ Taylor
    A Christmas ghost story by Alison Moore: A prodigal daughter has a breakthrough

    A Christmas ghost story by Alison Moore

    The story was published earlier this month in 'Poor Souls' Light: Seven Curious Tales'
    Marian Keyes: The author on her pre-approved Christmas, true love's parking implications and living in the moment

    Marian Keyes

    The author on her pre-approved Christmas, true love's parking implications and living in the moment
    Bill Granger recipes: Our chef creates an Italian-inspired fish feast for Christmas Eve

    Bill Granger's Christmas Eve fish feast

    Bill's Italian friends introduced him to the Roman Catholic custom of a lavish fish supper on Christmas Eve. Here, he gives the tradition his own spin…
    Liverpool vs Arsenal: Brendan Rodgers is fighting for his reputation

    Rodgers fights for his reputation

    Liverpool manager tries to stay on his feet despite waves of criticism
    Amir Khan: 'The Taliban can threaten me but I must speak out... innocent kids, killed over nothing. It’s sick in the mind'

    Amir Khan attacks the Taliban

    'They can threaten me but I must speak out... innocent kids, killed over nothing. It’s sick in the mind'
    Michael Calvin: Sepp Blatter is my man of the year in sport. Bring on 2015, quick

    Michael Calvin's Last Word

    Sepp Blatter is my man of the year in sport. Bring on 2015, quick