The United States put itself in the role of saviour with the Marshall Plan. which was intended to help Western Europe rebuild itself. The Netherlands benefited from this receiving one billion dollars.
In this year, the United Nations confronted head-on the old, and controversial issues in India and Palestine. On 15 August, India was declared independent. Lord Mountbatten presided over the transfer, which resulted in the partition of India into two states: Pakistan as Muslim territory, and India as Hindu. In Palestine the United Nations voted to set up a separate Jewish state, an Arab state and a separate regime for the city of Jerusalem. The stage was set for more violence as the agreement was responded to with the Arab spokesperson Dr Hussein Khalidi calling for a "crusade against the Jews". The transfer was marred by violence of an horrific nature, in one instance a train of Muslim refugees, bound for Pakistan after the partition, arrived carrying the dead bodies of 72 children after being ambushed by a Sikh band. By December, the last of the Muslim refuges had arrived in Pakistan, and the death toll, since partition, stood at 400,000 people.
Photo 98 is a series of high-profile national events and exhibitions, for information contact 01484 559888, or refer to www.photo98.com.
Current Exhibitions: `Heads of State', work by Faisal Abud'allah which investigates social stereotypes and personal identity. Gallery II, University of Bradford, Chesham Building, off Horton Road, Bradford BD7 (01274 383 365). To 3 April.Reuse content