Hamish McRae: Britain will find it very difficult to detach itself from struggling Europe

 

It is, for our politicians at least, a long weekend for reflection. There is the specific matter of the gains by the UK Independence Party in the elections last Thursday, a sharp enough advance to affect the policies of all parties towards Europe in the months ahead.

[Click on image above to enlarge graphic]

There is also the further downgrading of the economic forecasts for the eurozone by the European Commission, with the bloc now expected to shrink for two years running, the first back-to-back contraction since its inception. Then, there was a paper from the influential Ifo Institute in Munich about the flood of jobseekers and other immigrants into Germany. And there was the shift in policy by the European Central Bank to try to inject some demand into the economy by cutting its key interest rates, with the suggestion that it might even run negative interest rates if these are needed.

So a lot of stuff. From a British perspective a number of things have become clearer. One is that the ECB has shifted its objectives. The parallel is the initiative last year by its president, Mario Draghi, to do "whatever it takes" to save the euro. Insofar as one element of what it took was to cut the borrowing rate for Italy and Spain, that has succeeded. Thus the yield on Italian 10-year bonds on Friday was down to 3.738 per cent, and while Spain is paying quite a bit more, the immediate threat of meltdown has receded.

But the economy has got worse, much worse. The EC forecasts now show the eurozone is expected to decline by 0.4 per cent this year, following a 0.6 per cent decline last. Eight of the 17 eurozone economies are expected to shrink: France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece, Slovenia and Cyprus. The Cypriot economy is now expected to decline by 8.7 per cent, which is just about as bad as any developed economy performed at the bottom of the last cycle. Even Germany is expected to grow by only 0.4 per cent this year.

To put this in perspective, the most recent figures suggest that the UK grew by 0.2 per cent last year, and further upward revisions are expected. For this year forecasts are mostly in the 0.5-1.3 per cent range. So we will have a year when the UK does grow quite a bit faster than the rest of Europe, though our performance will undoubtedly be disappointing by past standards.

That leads to the question as to what extent the UK economy can detach itself from Europe. That is not meant to be a political statement, simply an observation that it will be in our self-interest to move the focus of our economy away from slow-growing markets to faster-growing ones. The short answer is that for manufacturing at least, it will be very hard to do so.

The main graph tracks the Purchasing Manager Indices for manufacturers in the UK and the eurozone since 2006. At present the UK index is a touch higher than that of the eurozone, but as the economics team at Berenberg Bank observed when it made this its "chart of the week", even in the dark days of the euro crisis last year the UK did not manage to decouple from its major market.

It also observed that the UK economy has been damaged not so much by excessive European regulations, for we compare well with the rest of Europe on market openness and flexibility, but rather by the macroeconomic failures of the last government.

Our public spending soared from 39 per cent of GDP in 1998 to 49 per cent in 2012, whereas the eurozone's spending crept up from 48.5 per cent to 49.5 per cent. UK debt to GDP ratio rose from 47 per cent to 90 per cent, against the eurozone's rise from 73 per cent to 91 per cent. The legacy was squandered, the bank observes.

So why is the UK expected to grow faster than any large country in the eurozone this year? It is because of our strength in services. You can see that in the right-hand graph, which compares UK PMIs for manufacturing and for services. Manufacturing is a whisker below the 50 point which signifies contraction or expansion, but services are 52.9, suggesting reasonable expansion.

The Centre for Business and Economic Research, commenting on this, reckons that service-sector growth will enable the UK to grow by about 1 per cent this year.

What should one make of all this? We will in all probability have a year when the UK economy does relatively well by European standards, but quite poorly when compared with its own historic performance. We will however been seen along with Germany as the place to go if you want growth – and jobs.

The Ifo paper notes that just as capital has flowed from the stricken fringe areas of Europe, so too is labour. Last year a net 410,000 people came to Germany, providing employers with well-qualified and willing-to-integrate staff. But of course the German welfare system has also attracted people who can get from the state far more than they could earn at home. This naturally is causing concern, and the Ifo paper suggests that the system is shifted so that welfare payments are paid by the home country rather than the host one.

A similar situation occurs here in the UK, leading to similar political pressures. The big economic point, however, for both Germany and the UK is that relatively successful economies will inevitably attract immigrants. A big point indeed to ponder.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Arts and Entertainment
The Apprentice candidates Roisin Hogan, Solomon Akhtar, Mark Wright, Bianca Miller, Daniel Lassman
tvReview: But which contestants got the boot?
Arts and Entertainment
Jim Carrey and Jeff Daniels ride again in Dumb and Dumber To
filmReview: Dumb And Dumber To was a really stupid idea
News
people

Jo from Northern Ireland was less than impressed by Russell Brand's attempt to stage a publicity stunt

Sport
Scunthorpe goalkeeper Sam Slocombe (left) is congratulated by winning penalty taker Miguel Llera (right)
football
Life and Style
A woman walks by a pandal art installation entitled 'Mars Mission' with the figure of an astronaut during the Durga Puja festival in Calcutta, India
techHow we’ll investigate the existence of, and maybe move in with, our alien neighbours
Arts and Entertainment
Sir Ian McKellen tempts the Cookie Monster
tvSir Ian McKellen joins the Cookie Monster for a lesson on temptation
News
i100
News
ebooksNow available in paperback
Travel
Tourists bask in the sun beneath the skyscrapers of Dubai
travelBritish embassy uses social media campaign to issue travel advice for festive holiday-makers in UAE
Arts and Entertainment
Jennifer Saunders stars as Miss Windsor, Dennis's hysterical French teacher
filmJennifer Saunders and Kate Moss join David Walliams on set for TV adaptation of The Boy in the Dress
Life and Style
tech
Sport
Nabil Bentaleb (centre) celebrates putting Tottenham ahead
footballTottenham 4 Newcastle 0: Spurs fans dreaming of Wembley final after dominant win
Life and Style
Sebastian Siemiatkowski is the 33-year-old co-founder and CEO of Klarna, which provides a simple way for people to buy things online
tech
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs Money & Business

Ashdown Group: Java Developer - Hertfordshire - £47,000 + bonus + benefits

£40000 - £470000 per annum + bonus: Ashdown Group: Java Developer / J2EE Devel...

Ashdown Group: Direct Marketing Manager - B2C, Financial Services - Slough

£45000 - £55000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: An exciting opportunity h...

Carlton Senior Appointments: Sr Wealth Manager - San Francisco - Inv AdvisoryFirm

$125 - $175 per annum: Carlton Senior Appointments: Senior Wealth Manager – In...

Carlton Senior Appointments: Private Banking Manager - Intl Bank - Los Angeles

$200 - $350 per annum: Carlton Senior Appointments: Managing Producer – Office...

Day In a Page

Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton: The power dynamics of the two first families

Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton

Karen Tumulty explores the power dynamics of the two first families
Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley with a hotbed of technology start-ups

Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley

The Swedish capital is home to two of the most popular video games in the world, as well as thousands of technology start-ups worth hundreds of millions of pounds – and it's all happened since 2009
Did Japanese workers really get their symbols mixed up and display Santa on a crucifix?

Crucified Santa: Urban myth refuses to die

The story goes that Japanese store workers created a life-size effigy of a smiling "Father Kurisumasu" attached to a facsimile of Our Lord's final instrument of torture
Jennifer Saunders and Kate Moss join David Walliams on set for TV adaptation of The Boy in the Dress

The Boy in the Dress: On set with the stars

Walliams' story about a boy who goes to school in a dress will be shown this Christmas
La Famille Bélier is being touted as this year's Amelie - so why are many in the deaf community outraged by it?

Deaf community outraged by La Famille Bélier

The new film tells the story of a deaf-mute farming family and is being touted as this year's Amelie
10 best high-end laptops

10 best high-end laptops

From lightweight and zippy devices to gaming beasts, we test the latest in top-spec portable computers
Michael Carberry: ‘After such a tough time, I’m not sure I will stay in the game’

Michael Carberry: ‘After such a tough time, I’m not sure I will stay in the game’

The batsman has grown disillusioned after England’s Ashes debacle and allegations linking him to the Pietersen affair
Susie Wolff: A driving force in battle for equality behind the wheel

Susie Wolff: A driving force in battle for equality behind the wheel

The Williams driver has had plenty of doubters, but hopes she will be judged by her ability in the cockpit
Adam Gemili interview: 'No abs Adam' plans to muscle in on Usain Bolt's turf

'No abs Adam' plans to muscle in on Usain Bolt's turf

After a year touched by tragedy, Adam Gemili wants to become the sixth Briton to run a sub-10sec 100m
Calls for a military mental health 'quality mark'

Homeless Veterans campaign

Expert calls for military mental health 'quality mark'
Racton Man: Analysis shows famous skeleton was a 6ft Bronze Age superman

Meet Racton Man

Analysis shows famous skeleton was a 6ft Bronze Age superman
Garden Bridge: St Paul’s adds to £175m project’s troubled waters

Garden Bridge

St Paul’s adds to £175m project’s troubled waters
Stuff your own Christmas mouse ornament: An evening class in taxidermy with a festive feel

Stuff your own Christmas mouse ornament

An evening class in taxidermy with a festive feel
Joint Enterprise: The legal doctrine which critics say has caused hundreds of miscarriages of justice

Joint Enterprise

The legal doctrine which critics say has caused hundreds of miscarriages of justice
Freud and Eros: Love, Lust and Longing at the Freud Museum: Objects of Desire

Freud and Eros

Love, Lust and Longing at the Freud Museum