Superior knowledge comes with age

Long-established institutions that rank high on research also offer the best teaching, says Geoffrey Alderman

Is the presence of research in a university necessary to ensure the highest quality of teaching? A post-mortem report being prepared by the quality assessment division (QAD) of the Higher Education Funding Council for England seems to suggest it is.

Between spring 1993 and summer 1995, the QAD assessed 15 subjects taught in institutions in England and Northern Ireland. More than 75 per cent of the judgements of "excellence" for a university subject were awarded to "old" universities, 22 per cent to former polytechnics and colleges, and one to a further education college.

At the other end of the scale, 12 visits resulted in judgements of "unsatisfactory" teaching quality. Of these, only one (postgraduate provision in English at Exeter University) went to an old university, nine went to former polytechnics and colleges, and two to further education colleges.

As it became clear that new universities were doing badly out of the exercise, several theories were put forward to explain the results. In some subjects there appeared to be a clear relationship between the quality of education provided and the calibre of the research that the teaching staff undertook.

For example, 15 of the "excellents" given in history went to departments that had been rated highly in the 1992 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE). Overall, 85 per cent of the verdicts of "excellent" in the first eight subjects assessed were given in respect of provision that had high ratings for research. More than 70 per cent of provision that had the highest research rating achieved an "excellent" assessment. Could it be that teaching and research really did go hand-in-hand, as the old universities had been arguing all along?

On this matter the QAD draft report is unequivocal: "There appears to be evidence of association between high achievement in research and excellence in teaching." Of course, a first-rate researcher need not be an excellent teacher, and a teacher of the highest calibre need not be at the cutting edge of research. But it must be remembered that the HEFCE was trying to measure quality of education, not simply quality of teaching.

What impressed assessors, as the QAD admits, was the impact that research activity had on the quality of the student learning experience: the impact of research on the curriculum; the fact that high research-rated departments tend to have more staff (thus permitting more individual and small group teaching); the impact of research funds on the quality of the library and information technology provision.

There was clearly, too, a functional relationship between size and excellence. "Small providers had relatively little success in achieving excellence," the QAD says, adding that more than 60 per cent of "excellents" were given to the largest 40 per cent of providers, measured by student numbers. Small departments may give individual tuition, but are less likely to provide students with the depth and breadth of educational experience on offer in large departments.

These considerations led to a discussion of the relationship between resource and assessment. At first, the HEFCE seemed reluctant to acknowledge the link between excellence and RAE rating. But in its evidence to the Government's review of higher education in February, the HEFCE agreed there was some evidence deriving from quality assessments that departments most successful in research, and therefore in attracting research funding, were among the most successful at teaching.

The QAD takes the argument further, by revealing that in terms of total HEFCE funding of institutions, and institutional income, more than three-quarters of the "excellents" are found in the largest 40 per cent of institutions. Excellence in the scientific and technological disciplines "is unlikely to be associated" with a low average unit of council funding (AUCF), while the small amount of provision found by QAD assessment teams to be unsatisfactory "lies in the lower ranges of AUCF and institutional income".

A fund for the development of teaching and learning has been established, and the HEFCE is expected shortly to issue an invitation to bid for project funding. This initiative is welcome, but it will not do much by itself to address the underlying question of resource, which the QAD says affects the quality of education in government-funded higher education institutions.

It will be up to Mrs Shephard and Mr Major, not the teachers and vice- chancellors, to propose how they respond to the QAD report.

The writer is head of the academic and quality assurance unit at Middlesex University.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs Education

Tradewind Recruitment: PMLD Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: PMLD Teacher A specialist primary school i...

Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher

£90 - £140 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: We are currently looking for a Geog...

Tradewind Recruitment: Phase Co-ordinator for Foundation and Key Stage 1

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: Phase Co-ordinator for Foundation and Key S...

Tradewind Recruitment: SEN Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: SEN Teacher We have a fantastic special n...

Day In a Page

As in 1942, Germany must show restraint over Greece

As in 1942, Germany must show restraint over Greece

Mussolini tried to warn his ally of the danger of bringing the country to its knees. So should we, says Patrick Cockburn
Britain's widening poverty gap should be causing outrage at the start of the election campaign

The short stroll that should be our walk of shame

Courting the global elite has failed to benefit Britain, as the vast disparity in wealth on display in the capital shows
Homeless Veterans appeal: The rise of the working poor: when having a job cannot prevent poverty

Homeless Veterans appeal

The rise of the working poor: when having a job cannot prevent poverty
Prince Charles the saviour of the nation? A new book highlights concerns about how political he will be when he eventually becomes king

Prince Charles the saviour of the nation?

A new book highlights concerns about how political he will be when he eventually becomes king
How books can defeat Isis: Patrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad

How books can defeat Isis

Patrick Cockburn was able to update his agenda-setting 'The Rise of Islamic State' while under attack in Baghdad
Judith Hackitt: The myths of elf 'n' safety

Judith Hackitt: The myths of elf 'n' safety

She may be in charge of minimising our risks of injury, but the chair of the Health and Safety Executive still wants children to be able to hurt themselves
The open loathing between Barack Obama and Benjamin Netanyahu just got worse

The open loathing between Obama and Netanyahu just got worse

The Israeli PM's relationship with the Obama has always been chilly, but going over the President's head on Iran will do him no favours, says Rupert Cornwell
French chefs get 'le huff' as nation slips down global cuisine rankings

French chefs get 'le huff' as nation slips down global cuisine rankings

Fury at British best restaurants survey sees French magazine produce a rival list
Star choreographer Matthew Bourne gives young carers a chance to perform at Sadler's Wells

Young carers to make dance debut

What happened when superstar choreographer Matthew Bourne encouraged 27 teenage carers to think about themselves for once?
Design Council's 70th anniversary: Four of the most intriguing prototypes from Ones to Watch

Design Council's 70th anniversary

Four of the most intriguing prototypes from Ones to Watch
Dame Harriet Walter: The actress on learning what it is to age, plastic surgery, and her unease at being honoured by the establishment

Dame Harriet Walter interview

The actress on learning what it is to age, plastic surgery, and her unease at being honoured by the establishment
Art should not be a slave to the ideas driving it

Art should not be a slave to the ideas driving it

Critics of Tom Stoppard's new play seem to agree that cerebral can never trump character, says DJ Taylor
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef's winter salads will make you feel energised through February

Bill Granger's winter salads

Salads aren't just a bit on the side, says our chef - their crunch, colour and natural goodness are perfect for a midwinter pick-me-up
England vs Wales: Cool head George Ford ready to put out dragon fire

George Ford: Cool head ready to put out dragon fire

No 10’s calmness under pressure will be key for England in Cardiff
Michael Calvin: Time for Old Firm to put aside bigotry and forge new links

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Time for Old Firm to put aside bigotry and forge new links