Europe in turmoil: The 20 Commissioners Who Resigned

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Jacques Santer, 61:

President. Former Prime Minister of Luxembourg who has held posts with World Bank and IMF.

Sir Leon Brittan, 59:

Vice-president. Former Tory Home Secretary, became EU commissioner in 1989

Manuel Marin, 49:

Vice-president. Spanish socialist who negotiated Spain's entry into EU.

Martin Bangemann, 64:

German commissioner for industrial affairs, information and telecommunications technologies.

Karel Van Miert, 57:

Belgian competition commissioner. Involved in row over sale of British Airways' Heathrow flight slots.

Hans van den Broek, 62:

French roving commissioner handling external relations with central and eastern Europe, common foreign, security policy and human rights.

Joao Pinheiro, 53:

Portuguese member of commission for external relations with African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.

Padraig Flynn, 59:

Irish member of commission for employ-ment and social affairs and relations with economic and social committee.

Marcelino Oreja, 64:

Spanish member of the commission for relations with the European Parliament

Anita Gradin, 65:

Swedish member of commission for financial control, fraud prevention.

Edith Cresson, 65:

French member of commission for science, research and development.

Ritt Bjerregaard, 57:

Danish member of commission for environment and nuclear safety

Monika Wulf-Mathies, 56:

Responsible for regional policies. Transport expert with links to German aviation industry.

Neil Kinnock, 56:

Transport commissioner.

Mario Monti, 55:

Italian responsible for internal market, financial services and financial integration; customs; taxation.

Franz Fischler, 52:

Austrian agriculture commissioner. Brought up on a farm and a bogeyman for British farmers.

Emma Bonino, 51:

Italian who was member for fisheries and consumer policy. A civil rights campaigner with no national political background who was responsible for European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO).

Yves-Thibault de Silguy, 50:

Former French foreign minister and economic adviser to the French Embassy in Washington responsible for economic and financial affairs.

Erkki Liikanen, 48:

Former Finnish finance minister, responsible for budget, personnel and administration.

Christos Papoutsis, 45:

Energy commissioner who had responsibility for small

businesses and tourism. An economist with a limited domestic political background.