Moments That Made The Year : No stopping the single currency juggernaut

Europe has turned the corner and monetary union is inevitable, writes Andrew Marshall

It has been a strange year in Europe, one of manoeuvring and shadowboxing, hedging and ditching. Yet out of this mess, a greater truth is emerging: Europe will have a single currency.

At the beginning of 1996, it would have looked to a casual observer as if monetary union might not happen at all. The economics looked dodgy, the politics worse, and the prospects for success by 1999 seemed slight. By the end of the year, all that had turned around - to the extent that the actual notes were on display. For the first time, monetary union had become a concrete reality, a tangible fact: we could see the colour of the money. It is likely to prove a turning point.

The combination of slow growth in Europe and political opposition have both looked to be formidable obstacles to a single currency ever since the goal was agreed at Maastricht in 1991. The economic numbers from France and Germany (let alone the rest) looked as if they would make the project impossible. And in what could have been an important turning point, monetary union appeared as a divisive issue in the domestic politics of the state which matters more than all the others: Germany. The opposition Social Democrats campaigned against the euro in Baden Wurttemberg under the slogan: "Stability and jobs have priority now. Postpone EMU." But this call was soundly rejected by the electorate.

Bit by bit this year, the project has picked up momentum. At meetings in Verona, in Florence, and in Dublin, the EU started to put flesh on the bones. The new notes, unveiled in Dublin this month, may have been the most visible evidence of progress; but more important still was the so-called "stability pact", an agreement that will regulate the workings of economic policy under monetary union. It is one of the basic building blocks for a single currency.

Technically, it sets the rules for the acceptable limits of budget deficits for countries that participate in the euro. Politically, it ensures that Germany has a guarantee that the euro will be as stable and reliable as its own currency.

None of this means that the struggles are over, of course. The protests against budget cuts that have echoed across the main squares of Europe this year have shown that the divisive effect of cuts and austerity packages can generate anger and effective opposition. There will be more of this next year.

Periodically, the effusion of opposition seems to crystallise into a real problem for monetary union. At least twice this year - in January and September - the flood of protests, expressions of doubt amongst the great and good of Europe and economic rumblings cast doubt on the enterprise.

It is partly a question of perception. Because of the sometimes tortuous way in which EMU advances, and because so much of the preparation is highly technical, the solidity of the single currency seems in doubt. Roadblocks and riots in Europe are more graphic, more obviously solid than meetings of finance ministers.

But the reality is that the project thunders on down the road, making progress in a sometimes haphazard way towards the goal of a single currency for Europe. As the Dublin summit showed, the fundamental political will in the rest of Europe is still there, and strikes by French and Greek lorry drivers or demonstrations in Rome will not divert it.

In Britain, the debate has moved this way and that over the course of 1996, rarely making contact with the reality of what is going on in Europe. Shadow boxing between and within the Labour and Conservative parties did little to clarify the basic issue: whether or not Britain will participate in a single currency. Both parties appeared to move further away from participation - yet neither would issue concrete statements with an election around the corner.

But there were vague stirrings this year in Britain, a sense of awakening from the prolonged sleep of the last five years. For the first time, there was an apparent recognition that something is actually happening. One index of this is the gap between what Malcolm Rifkind said in January and what he said in October. The Foreign Secretary, at the beginning of this year, was letting it be known that he thought the project to be on its last legs, and that he believed a postponement was just around the corner. By the time he made a landmark speech in Zurich in October, the angle was different. Instead, monetary union was presented as an imminent reality, albeit a risky and dangerous one.

That does not mean that the battles are over - indeed the biggest battle of all, over who takes part and who does not - is still some way down the road. But over the next year, there will be more and more signs of monetary union, taking it further off the drawing board and into the realm of the practical.

Foreign Editor

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
News
ebookA unique anthology of reporting and analysis of a crucial period of history
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Guru Careers: Software Developer / C# Developer

£40-50K: Guru Careers: We are seeking an experienced Software / C# Developer w...

Guru Careers: Software Developer

£35 - 40k + Benefits: Guru Careers: We are seeking a Software Developer (JavaS...

SThree: Trainee Recruitment Consultant / Resourcer

£18000 - £23000 per annum + Commission: SThree: As a Trainee Recruitment Consu...

Ashdown Group: UI Developer - (UI, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, AngularJS)

£25000 - £40000 per annum: Ashdown Group: UI Developer - (UI, JavaScript, HTML...

Day In a Page

Abuse - and the hell that came afterwards

Abuse - and the hell that follows

James Rhodes on the extraordinary legal battle to publish his memoir
Why we need a 'tranquility map' of England, according to campaigners

It's oh so quiet!

The case for a 'tranquility map' of England
'Timeless fashion': It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it

'Timeless fashion'

It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it
If the West needs a bridge to the 'moderates' inside Isis, maybe we could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive after all

Could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive?

Robert Fisk on the Fountainheads of World Evil in 2011 - and 2015
New exhibition celebrates the evolution of swimwear

Evolution of swimwear

From bathing dresses in the twenties to modern bikinis
Sun, sex and an anthropological study: One British academic's summer of hell in Magaluf

Sun, sex and an anthropological study

One academic’s summer of hell in Magaluf
From Shakespeare to Rising Damp... to Vicious

Frances de la Tour's 50-year triumph

'Rising Damp' brought De la Tour such recognition that she could be forgiven if she'd never been able to move on. But at 70, she continues to flourish - and to beguile
'That Whitsun, I was late getting away...'

Ian McMillan on the Whitsun Weddings

This weekend is Whitsun, and while the festival may no longer resonate, Larkin's best-loved poem, lives on - along with the train journey at the heart of it
Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath in a new light

Songs from the bell jar

Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath
How one man's day in high heels showed him that Cannes must change its 'no flats' policy

One man's day in high heels

...showed him that Cannes must change its 'flats' policy
Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

Dominic Rossi of Fidelity says his pressure on business to control rewards is working. But why aren’t other fund managers helping?
The King David Hotel gives precious work to Palestinians - unless peace talks are on

King David Hotel: Palestinians not included

The King David is special to Jerusalem. Nick Kochan checked in and discovered it has some special arrangements, too
More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years

End of the Aussie brain drain

More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years
Meditation is touted as a cure for mental instability but can it actually be bad for you?

Can meditation be bad for you?

Researching a mass murder, Dr Miguel Farias discovered that, far from bringing inner peace, meditation can leave devotees in pieces
Eurovision 2015: Australians will be cheering on their first-ever entrant this Saturday

Australia's first-ever Eurovision entrant

Australia, a nation of kitsch-worshippers, has always loved the Eurovision Song Contest. Maggie Alderson says it'll fit in fine