Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Anniversaries

Births: Giuseppe Ribera ("Lo Spagnoletto"), painter, 1588; Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, educational reformer, 1746; Joseph-Jacques- Cesaire Joffre, French marshal, 1852; John Singer Sargent, portrait painter, 1856; John Griffith (Jack) London, novelist, 1876; Hermann Goering, Nazi leader, 1893. Deaths: Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1519; Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, military commander, 1582; Jan Brueghel the Elder, painter, 1625; Henry Stafford Northcote, first Earl of Iddesleigh, statesman, 1887; Sir Isaac Pitman, printer and publisher, 1897; Nevil Shute (Norway), novelist, 1960; Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, detective- story writer, 1976. On this day: Protestants in Switzerland introduced the Gregorian calendar, 1701; the Royal Aeronautical Society was founded, 1866; the National Trust was founded, 1895; Britain's first supermarket was opened by the London Co-operative Society at Manor Park, Ilford, 1948; the New Zealand parliament was opened by Queen Elizabeth II, 1954. Today is the Feast Day of St Arcadius, St Benedict or or Benet Biscop, St Caesaria, St Eutropius, St Margaret Bourgeoys, St Tatiana and St Victorian.

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