Fosco Maraini

Writer and traveller who photographed 'secret Tibet'

At the end of the Pacific War, in August 1945, the gates of Japan's camps were opened. In the city of Nagoya, among the released internees was an Italian family. They were Fosco Maraini, the writer, photographer, mountaineer and ethnographer, his wife Topazia and their three small daughters.

Fosco Maraini, writer, photographer, mountaineer, traveller and ethnologist: born Florence, Italy 11 November 1912; Reader in Italian, University of Kyoto 1941-43; Fellow, St Antony's College, Oxford 1959-64; married 1935 Topazia Alliata (two daughters, and one daughter deceased; marriage dissolved), 1970 Mieko Namiki; died Florence 8 June 2004.

At the end of the Pacific War, in August 1945, the gates of Japan's camps were opened. In the city of Nagoya, among the released internees was an Italian family. They were Fosco Maraini, the writer, photographer, mountaineer and ethnographer, his wife Topazia and their three small daughters.

At the time of his incarceration Maraini was a Reader in Italian at the University of Kyoto. He went on to write a number of distinguished books on his travels in Asia, including Meeting With Japan and Secret Tibet, and on his mountain expeditions in Pakistan and Afghanistan. In later life he was a lecturer in Japanese at the University of Florence, the city of his birth.

Born to an Italian artist father and an English mother, the writer Yoi Crosse, from an early age Fosco was an enthusiastic skier and mountain climber, and he made his first big ascents with the great Emilio Comici. He was also fascinated by the art of photography. In 1930, when he was only 18, he successfully showed his experimental black-and-white photographs in Rome at the exhibition " Mostra Nazionale di Fotografia Futurista".

Another of Maraini's passions was Oriental culture and in 1934, he embarked as a teacher of English on the cadet ship Amerigo Vespucci, visiting Greece, the Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. The following year he married Topazia Alliata, a member of an old Sicilian family. In 1937, he accompanied the Orientalist Giuseppe Tucci as official photographer on an expedition to Tibet. Tucci was a supporter of Mussolini, and a close friend of the Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile. Maraini's stance was resolutely anti-Fascist.

On his return to Italy (after brief visits to Japan and Korea) Maraini decided to dedicate his life to Oriental ethnology. He took his final examinations in Natural Sciences at the University of Florence, and in 1939, with a grant from the Japanese government, travelled to Sapporo in Hokkaido to study the tribal traditions and arts of the Ainu people, then on the verge of extinction. He was also attracted to the art of ukiyoe or wood-block prints, especially those made by Hokusai (1760-1849), a master of evocative perspectives whose art influenced Maraini's own work with a camera.

When the Pacific War broke out, Tucci was sent by Mussolini to found the Italian Cultural Institute in Tokyo and travelled all over Japan giving lectures on Tibet and on "racial purity". Maraini was appointed Reader in Italian at the University of Kyoto in 1941, but his own political opinions were directly opposed to those of Tucci, the German Fascists and their Japanese imitators. In 1943, when he refused to give his support to Mussolini's last stance, Maraini and his family were incarcerated at Nagoya as "civil internees". They remained there until 15 August 1945.

Towards the end of their enforced stay in the prison, Maraini made the rather operatic gesture of chopping off his little finger in the highly dramatic style of yakuza (gangster) movies, where the gesture symbolises deep apology to the boss as well as undying loyalty to him. If Maraini was expecting to impress the guards he was under a delusion. It had no effect at all, for such a traditional "honour" self-sacrifice is valid only when performed by a Japanese in atonement for errors.

Maraini returned to Italy, where his photography took on a new depth as he portrayed with total realism the agonies of post-war life, adopting the grand verismo style of Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica and Luchino Visconti. From 1948 to 1950 he made an extraordinary documentary film on southern Italy, Nostro Sud, which even today is in large part unedited.

In 1948, Maraini participated in Tucci's second Tibet expedition. His experiences and photographs were collected in his first book, Segreto Tibet (1951) which was translated into English as Secret Tibet the following year. In the mid-1950s he spent a further year in Japan, collecting materials for future works. He was a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford from 1959 to 1964, and made many voyages across Asia - to India, Nepal, Thailand, Cambodia, Japan and Korea.

His best book, Meeting With Japan, was published in 1959 (the original Italian version, Ore Giapponesi, had appeared two years earlier) when I read it during my first year as Professor of English at Tohoku University in Sendai. Its construction considerably influenced my own early books about Japan.

During the rest of his very full life he was loaded with honours in both Italy and Japan. In 1999, his slightly fictionalised autobiography, Case, Amori, Universi ("Houses, Loves, Universes"), was published. His photographic collection of over 25,000 images and his library of books on the Orient have been acquired by the city of Florence for the Centro Vieusseux-Asia.

Dacia Maraini, one of his daughters, became a celebrated Italian playwright and novelist. She recalled this saying of her father, which he told her as a child, "Remember always that races do not exist. Only cultures exist" - words that encapsulate Maraini's whole philosophy of life.

James Kirkup

Earlier this year I received a card from Florence with kind words from Fosco Maraini on my becoming editor of the Alpine Journal, writes Stephen Goodwin. He pointed out that he had at his house a full run of AJs, the oldest mountaineering journal in the world, from 1863, plus its two forerunner issues of Peaks, Passes and Glaciers - a rare and valuable collection indeed.

Maraini was an alpinist in the classic European gentlemanly mould, urbane and witty, the mountains a different venue for social engagement and intellectual inquiry as well as fun and physical challenge. He certainly wasn't one of the obsessional "hard men" of climbing, though his list of ascents in the Dolomites and the western Alps from 1929 to 1937 is impressive. He was elected to the Alpine Club in 1960 and remained a member to his death.

While most of his climbs were done guideless, he made several excursions onto the spires of the Dolomites with the Trieste ace Emilio Comici, notably two ascents of the Dülfer route (V+) on the Cima Grande di Lavaredo and the committing Preuss Crack (V) on the Cima Piccolissima. Maraini kept fine company. Against one climb on the Torre del Diavolo, on his record is written: "with E Comici and King of Belgium".

This phase of activity came to an end when he travelled East; to Tibet in 1937 and then to Japan. While in Japan, he climbed Mount Fuji and made several ski ascents of peaks in Hokkaido.

In 1958, Maraini's knowledge of Asia and facility with languages made him a useful member of the successful Italian expedition, led by Riccardo Cassin, to Gasherbrum IV (7,925m), the "Matterhorn of the Baltoro glacier" in Pakistan. Maraini secured the all-important peak permit in Karachi, and later reached 7,200m on the formidable mountain.

A year later he led a team from the Rome section of the Italian Alpine Club to Saraghrar Peak in the Hindu Kush, on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Four climbers gained the 7,367m summit. Looking back on this trip he delighted in the contrast between the mountaineers' enjoyment of "the ruder pleasures of nature" and a sophisticated Rome where "the last descendants of feudal lords mingle with monsignori and abbots", coupled with the "rather scandalous aura" of politics and cinema stars.

Maraini recorded these adventures in Gasherbrum (1960, translated as Karakoram: the ascent of Gasherbrum IV, 1961) and Paropàmiso (1963, Where Four Worlds Meet: Hindu Kush 1959, 1964), accompanied by superb photographs. But his most enduring work is Secret Tibet. The book is by turns intimate and scholarly as Maraini and Giuseppe Tucci ("the great master") visited villages and monasteries on a route from Sikkim to Lhasa.

Maraini couldn't know it at the time, but many of the statues and wall paintings he photographed with his Leica and described so elegantly, would be destroyed in Mao's Cultural Revolution - a term he regarded as horribly ironic, describing 1966 to 1977 as "those years of fire and shit". The photographs in Secret Tibet became the only record of the treasures of places like the 1,000-year old Kyangphu monastery, reduced to rubble.

Four years ago, a new edition of Secret Tibet was published (the Italian version appeared in 1998), augmented with fresh reflections by Maraini on his travels, Buddhism and the future of Tibet. When he recalled Kyangphu, he did so, he said, "with tears in my eyes".



Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
News
One father who couldn't get One Direction tickets for his daughters phoned in a fake bomb threat and served eight months in a federal prison
people... (and one very unlucky giraffe)
Sport
sportSo, how closely were you paying attention during 2014?
Arts and Entertainment
Dennis speaks to his French teacher
tvThe Boy in the Dress, TV review
Arts and Entertainment
Joel Edgerton, John Turturro and Christian Bale in Exodus: Gods and Kings
film
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Selby Jennings: VP/SVP Credit Quant- NY- Investment Bank

Not specified: Selby Jennings: VP/SVP Credit Quant Top tier investment bank i...

Ashdown Group: Senior Marketing Executive- City of London, Old Street

£40000 - £43000 per annum + benefits: Ashdown Group: Senior Marketing Executiv...

Ashdown Group: Marketing Manager

£40000 - £43000 per annum + benefits: Ashdown Group: An international organisa...

Ashdown Group: Internal Recruiter -Rugby, Warwickshire

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Internal Recruiter -Rugby, Warwicksh...

Day In a Page

Aren’t you glad you didn’t say that? The worst wince-and-look-away quotes of the year

Aren’t you glad you didn’t say that?

The worst wince-and-look-away quotes of the year
Hollande's vanity project is on a high-speed track to the middle of nowhere

Vanity project on a high-speed track to nowhere

France’s TGV network has become mired in controversy
Sports Quiz of the Year

Sports Quiz of the Year

So, how closely were you paying attention during 2014?
Alexander Armstrong on insulting Mary Berry, his love of 'Bargain Hunt', and life as a llama farmer

Alexander Armstrong on insulting Mary Berry and his love of 'Bargain Hunt'

From Armstrong and Miller to Pointless
Sanchez helps Gunners hold on after Giroud's moment of madness

Sanchez helps Gunners hold on

Olivier Giroud's moment of madness nearly costs them
A Christmas without hope: Fears grow in Gaza that the conflict with Israel will soon reignite

Christmas without hope

Gaza fears grow that conflict with Israel will soon reignite
After 150 years, you can finally visit the grisliest museum in the country

The 'Black Museum'

After 150 years, you can finally visit Britain's grisliest museum
No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

Doctor Who Christmas Special TV review
Chilly Christmas: Swimmers take festive dip for charity

Chilly Christmas

Swimmers dive into freezing British waters for charity
Veterans' hostel 'overwhelmed by kindness' for festive dinner

Homeless Veterans appeal

In 2010, Sgt Gary Jamieson stepped on an IED in Afghanistan and lost his legs and an arm. He reveals what, and who, helped him to make a remarkable recovery
Isis in Iraq: Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment by militants

'Jilan killed herself in the bathroom. She cut her wrists and hanged herself'

Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment
Ed Balls interview: 'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'

Ed Balls interview

'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'
He's behind you, dude!

US stars in UK panto

From David Hasselhoff to Jerry Hall
Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz: What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?

Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz

What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?
Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Planet’s surface is inhospitable to humans but 30 miles above it is almost perfect