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Births: Robert Raikes, publisher and founder of Sunday Schools, 1736; Francois-Rene, Vicomte de Chateaubriand, writer and politician, 1768; Anton Bruckner, composer and organist, 1824; Dadabhai Naoroji, first Asian member of parliament, 1825; Albert Joseph Moore, decorative painter, 1841; Darius Milhaud, composer, 1892; Antonin Artaud, playwright and director, 1896; Mary Renault (Mary Challens), novelist, 1905; Richard Nathaniel Wright, novelist and essayist, 1908.

Deaths: Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, 1588; Charles Townshend, chancellor of the exchequer, 1767; James Wyatt, architect, 1813; Celestin-Francois Nanteuil, painter and engraver, 1873; Edvard Hagerup Grieg, composer, 1907; Walford Graham Robertson, playwright and artist, 1948; Robert Schuman, French statesman, 1963; Albert Schweitzer, organist, doctor and missionary, 1965.

On this day: the Battle of Montaperti was fought between the Guelphs and Ghibellines , 1260; in France, Emperor Napoleon III was deposed, and the Third Republic proclaimed, 1870; the Apache chief Geronimo surrendered to the US army, 1886; the world's first rally of Boy Scouts was held at the Crystal Palace, near London, 1909;the Germans retreated to the Siegfried Line, 1918; Largo Caballero formed a Socialist government in Spain, 1936; the British liner Athenia sank after being torpedoed by a German U-boat the previous day, with the loss of 93 lives, 1939; Antwerp was liberated by the Allies, 1944; Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicated in favour of her daughter, Juliana, 1948; the Forth Road bridge was opened by the Queen, 1964; in Rio de Janeiro, the US ambassador to Brazil was kidnapped by terrorists, 1969.

Today is the Feast Day of St Boniface I, pope, St Ida of Herzfeld, Saints Marcellus and Valerian, St Marinus of San Marino, St Rosalia, St Rose of Viterbo and St Ultan of Ardbraccan.