Wednesday 03 September 1997
Births: Pietro Locatelli, violinist and composer, 1695; Matthew Boulton, engineer, 1728; Joseph Wright, painter, 1734; John Francis, sculptor, 1780; James Joseph Sylvester, mathematician, 1814; Ernst Pasque, baritone, composer and novelist, 1821; Louis Henry Sullivan, architect, 1856; Jean- Joseph Marie-Auguste Jaures, socialist writer and speaker, 1859; Marcel Grandjany, composer, 1891; Cecil Parker (Cecil Schwabe), actor, 1897; Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, immunologist, 1899; Alan Ladd, film actor, 1913. Deaths: Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1658; Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, playwright, 1883; Sir Arthur Streeton, painter, 1943; e.e. cummings (Edward Estlin Cummings), poet, 1962; Frederick Louis MacNiece, poet and playwright, 1963; Ho Chi Minh, president of North Vietnam, 1969; Frederic Dannay, novelist (one-half of the team called "Ellery Queen"), 1982; Arthur Schwartz, popular composer, 1984; Frank Capra, writer and film director, 1991. On this day: the Battle of Dunbar was fought, when Cromwell defeated the Scots, 1650; Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalist troops at the Battle of Worcester, 1651; Richard Cromwell became Lord Protector of England, 1658; the Gregorian calendar was introduced, replacing the Julian, when 3rd September became 14th September, 1752; the American War of Independence came to an end after Britain and the US signed Treaty of Paris, 1783; Bartholomew Fair, dating from 1123, was proclaimed at Smithfield, London, for the last time, 1855; the Royal British Bank failed, with debts of over pounds 500,000, 1856; the Afghans massacred the members of the British legation in Kabul, 1879; the Princess Alice, a pleasure boat, collided with the Bywell Castle and sank in the Thames with the loss of over 650 lives, 1878; the French government was removed to Bordeaux, 1914; Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, was destroyed and 5,000 killed when a hurricane hit the city, 1930; Sir Malcolm Campbell set up a land speed record of 301.13 mph, 1935; Great Britain and France declared war on Germany, 1939; the Germans torpedoed the liner Athenia off the Irish coast, 1939; under the Lend-Lease agreement, the US sent destroyers to Britain, 1940; the Allies landed at Salerno, on the mainland of Italy, and the Italian government surrendered, 1943; the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was established, 1953; Sweden changed its rule of the road from left to right, 1967; the spacecraft Viking 2 landed on Mars and sent back photographs to the Earth, 1976. Today is the Feast Day of St Aigulf or Ayoul of Lerins, St Cuthburga, St Gregory the Great, St Hildelitha, St Macanisius, St Phoebe, St Remaclus and St Simeon Stylites the Younger
- 1 The West has it totally wrong on Lee Kuan Yew
- 2 Watch: Man takes selfie every mile of 2,600 mile hike, creates amazing timelapse video
- 3 The day I starred in Only Fools and Horses
- 4 #FreeTheNipple: Women in Iceland bare breasts in solidarity with trolled student
- 5 Scientists have discovered a simple way to cook rice that dramatically cuts the calories
Germanwings captain Patrick Sondenheimer tried to break into locked cockpit door 'with an axe' as plane was descending
Saudi Arabia says it won't rule out building nuclear weapons
The battle for the Middle East's future begins in Yemen as Saudi Arabia jumps into the abyss
Jeremy Clarkson 'could be given minder' ahead of a potential Top Gear return
#FreeTheNipple: Women in Iceland bare breasts in solidarity with trolled student
Nigel Farage brands LGBT activists 'filth' and 'scum' and accuses them of scaring away his children after they invade his local pub
Ukip supporters are 55 or older, white and socially conservative, finds British Social Attitudes Report
JK Rowling responds to fan tweeting she 'can't see' Dumbledore being gay
Russia threatens Denmark with nuclear weapons if it tries to join Nato defence shield
Jeremy Clarkson sacked live: Alan Yentob 'wouldn't rule out' ex Top Gear host's BBC return
Revealed: Putin's army of pro-Kremlin bloggers
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