Births: Jean-Pierre Blanchard, balloonist, 1753; Nathaniel Hawthorne, author, 1804; Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian leader, 1807; Dr Thomas John Barnardo, philanthropist, 1845; Francis Montague (Frank) Holl, portrait painter, 1845; Walter Greaves, painter, 1846; James Anthony Bailey, circus proprietor, 1847; Joseph Pennell, etcher and author, 1860; Hugo Winckler, Assyriologist, 1863; John Calvin Coolidge, 30th US President, 1872; Louis Burt Mayer, Hollywood mogul, 1885; Gertrude Lawrence (Gertrud Alexandra Dagmar Lawrence Klasen), actress, 1898; Daniel Louis Armstrong, jazz trumpeter and singer, 1900; Lionel Trilling, author and educationist, 1905. Deaths: Bencivieni di Pepo (Giovanni Cimabue), painter, 1302; Ortelius (Abraham Oertel), cartographer, 1598; William Byrd, organist and composer, 1623; Samuel Richardson, novelist, 1761; Richard Cosway, miniature painter, 1821; John Adams, second US President, 1826; Thomas Jefferson, third US President, 1826; James Monroe, fifth US President, 1831; Viscomte Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, politician and writer, 1848; Marie Curie (Marja Sklodowska), chemist, 1934; Suzanne Lenglen, tennis player, 1938; Louis Wain, illustrator of cats, 1939; Wladyslaw Sikorski, prime minister of Poland, in an air crash 1943; Bernard Cyril, first Baron Freyberg, Governor-General of New Zealand, 1963. On this day: Saladin defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Tiberias, 1187; the Barebones Parliament began sitting, 1653; the American Declaration of Independence was adopted, 1776; the US Military Academy was opened at West Point with 10 cadets, 1802; work on the Erie Canal began, 1817; the first Cunard steamship, the Britannia, sailed from Liverpool to Halifax and Boston, 1840; Karl Heinrich Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto, 1848; the Statue of Liberty was presented by the people of France to the US, 1883; the construction of the Panama Canal began, 1904; Hanna Reitsch made the first successful flight in a helicopter, Germany, 1937; the Republic of the Philippines was established, 1946. Today is Independence Day in the United States of America and the Feast Day of St Andrew of Crete, St Bertha of Blangy, St Elizabeth of Portugal, St Odo of Canterbury, St Ulric of Augsburg and The Martyrs of Dorchester.

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