Anniversaries

TODAY: Births: Bartolommeo di Francesco Cristofori, harpsichord maker, 1655; William Roy, military engineer and surveyor, 1726; Florian Leopold Gassmann, composer, 1729; Sir Thomas Lawrence, portrait painter, 1769; Baron Francois-Pascal Simon Gerard, painter, 1770; Johann Friedrich Herbart, philosopher, 1776; William Hickling Prescott, historian, 1796; Franz Adam, painter, 1815; Joseph Whitaker, publisher of Whitaker's Almanack, 1820; Thomas Henry Huxley, biologist and natural historian, 1825; Frederick Edwin Church, landscape painter, 1826; John Hanning Speke, discoverer of the source of the Nile, 1827; Edmund Hart Turpin, organist and composer, 1835; Thomas Wilmer Dewing, figure painter, 1851; Alice Liddell, the original of Alice in Wonderland, 1852; Alexandre Nikolaievich Benois, painter and theatrical designer, 1870; Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst, artist and feminist, 1882; Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York, 1889; Israel Moses Sieff, Baron Sieff, president of Marks and Spencer, 1889; Sir Archibald Hector McIndoe, plastic surgeon, 1900; Matyas Seiber, composer, 1905; Audrey Hepburn, [Edda van Heemstra Hepburn-Ruston] film actress, 1929. Deaths: Sir James Thornhill, historical painter, 1734; William Froude, engineer and naval architect, 1879; Carl von Ossietzky, pacifist journalist and Nobel prizewinner, in a Nazi concentration camp, 1938; William Rose Benet, author, 1950; Georges Enesco (Gheorghe Enescu), violinist and composer, 1955; Sir Francis Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell, author, 1969; Josip Broz Tito, president of Yugoslavia, 1980; Diana Dors (Fluck), film actress, 1984. On this day: the Lancastrians were defeated by the Yorkists at the Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471; the first Derby was run at Epsom and won by Diomed, 1780; the Cunard shipping line was founded by Sir Samuel Cunard, of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1839; Natal was proclaimed a British colony, 1843; the Maoris rebelled against the British in New Zealand, 1863; the Colonial and Indian Exhibition opened at South Kensington, 1886; the Daily Mail was first published, price one halfpenny, 1896; work on excavating the Panama Canal began, 1904; 413 men were lost when the British transport Transylvania was torpedoed in the Mediterranean, 1917; the General Strike in Britain began, 1926; the first London production of the musical show Watch Your Step was staged, 1928; the first president of the Irish Republic was elected, Douglas Hyde, a Protestant, 1938; the Battle of the Coral Sea began, 1942; during an anti-war demonstration, four students were killed at Kent State University, US, 1970; "Waltzing Matilda" became the national anthem of Australia, 1976; Mrs Margaret Thatcher became Britain's first woman Prime Minister, 1979. Today is the Feast Day of St Augustine Webster, St Cyriacus or Judas Quiriacus, St Florian of Lorch, St Gothard or Godehard, St John Houghton, St Pelagia of Tarsus, St Robert Lawrence, St Richard Reynolds and St Venerius of Milan.

TOMORROW: Births: Rupert, King of Germany, 1352; Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1747; Louis-Christophe Francois Hachette, bookseller and publisher, 1800; Soren Aabye Kierkegaard, philosopher, 1813; Eugene-Martin Labiche, playwright and farceuceur, 1815; Heinrich Karl Marx, author and socialist, 1818; Stanislaw Moniuszko, composer, 1819; Jean-Louis Hamon, painter, 1821; The Empress Eugenie of France (Eugenie Marie de Montijo de Guzman), 1826; Karl Attenhofer, conductor and composer, 1837; Henryk Sienkiewicz, novelist, author of Quo Vadis?, 1846; Sir Douglas Mawson, Antarctic explorer, 1882; Archibald Percival Wavell, First Earl, soldier, 1883; Christopher Darlington Morley, novelist and playwright, 1890; Sir Gordon Richards, jockey, 1904. Deaths: Samuel Cooper, miniature painter, 1672; Napoleon I (Napoleone Buonaparte), Emperor of France, 1821; Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli, composer, 1837; Charles Robert Leslie, painter, 1859; Marc-Charles Gabriel Gleyre, painter, 1874; James Grant, novelist and historian, 1887; Joseph- Nicolas Robert-Fleury, painter, 1890; August Wilhelm von Hofmann, chemist, 1892; Francis Bret Harte, author, 1902; William Friese-Greene (William Green), cinematograph pioneer, 1921; Beatrice Harraden, novelist, 1936; James Branch Cabell, novelist, 1958; Professor Ludwig Erhard, former West German chancellor, 1977; Sir Donald Coleman Bailey, wartime bridge designer, 1985. On this day: St Helena was occupied by Captain John Dutton of the East India Company, 1659;the States-General assembled at Versailles, 1789; the British defeated the French at Battle of Fuentes de Onoro, 1811; the Confederates were victorious at the Battle of Williamsburg, 1862; the Battle of the Wilderness began during American Civil War, 1864; the first train robbery in the US took place near North Bend, Ohio, 1865; excavation of the Corinth Canal in Greece began, 1882; Amy Johnson began a solo flight to Australia, 1930; Italian forces captured Addis Ababa, 1936; British forces invaded Madagascar, 1942; the Council of Europe was set up in London, 1949; the Federal Republic of Germany became a sovereign state, 1955; US Commander Alan B. Shepard went into space in a Mercury capsule, 1961; Major Yuri Gagarin, cosmonaut of the USSR, orbited the earth, 1961. Today is the Feast Day of St Angelo, St Avertinus, St Hilary of Arles, St Hilary of Galeata, St John Haile, St Jutta and St Mauruntius.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£36000 - £45000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Ashdown Group: HR Manager Shared Services - Uxbridge, - 1 Year contract

£50000 per annum: Ashdown Group: HR Manager Shared Services - Uxbridge, Stock...

Recruitment Genius: Graduate Human Resource Officer and Executive Assistant

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity to join one of...

Ashdown Group: HR Assistant (Events business) - Central Manchester - £20K

£18000 - £20000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Assistant (Events busi...

Day In a Page

Fishing for votes with Nigel Farage: The Ukip leader shows how he can work an audience as he casts his line to the disaffected of Grimsby

Fishing is on Nigel Farage's mind

Ukip leader casts a line to the disaffected
Who is bombing whom in the Middle East? It's amazing they don't all hit each other

Who is bombing whom in the Middle East?

Robert Fisk untangles the countries and factions
China's influence on fashion: At the top of the game both creatively and commercially

China's influence on fashion

At the top of the game both creatively and commercially
Lord O’Donnell: Former cabinet secretary on the election and life away from the levers of power

The man known as GOD has a reputation for getting the job done

Lord O'Donnell's three principles of rule
Rainbow shades: It's all bright on the night

Rainbow shades

It's all bright on the night
'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

Bread from heaven

Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

How 'the Axe' helped Labour

UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power
Rare and exclusive video shows the horrific price paid by activists for challenging the rule of jihadist extremists in Syria

The price to be paid for challenging the rule of extremists

A revolution now 'consuming its own children'
Welcome to the world of Megagames

Welcome to the world of Megagames

300 players take part in Watch the Skies! board game in London
'Nymphomaniac' actress reveals what it was really like to star in one of the most explicit films ever

Charlotte Gainsbourg on 'Nymphomaniac'

Starring in one of the most explicit films ever
Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers

Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi

The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers
Vince Cable interview: Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'

Vince Cable exclusive interview

Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'
Iwan Rheon interview: Game of Thrones star returns to his Welsh roots to record debut album

Iwan Rheon is returning to his Welsh roots

Rheon is best known for his role as the Bastard of Bolton. It's gruelling playing a sadistic torturer, he tells Craig McLean, but it hasn't stopped him recording an album of Welsh psychedelia
Russell Brand's interview with Ed Miliband has got everyone talking about The Trews

Everyone is talking about The Trews

Russell Brand's 'true news' videos attract millions of viewers. But today's 'Milibrand' interview introduced his resolutely amateurish style to a whole new crowd
Morne Hardenberg interview: Cameraman for BBC's upcoming show Shark on filming the ocean's most dangerous predator

It's time for my close-up

Meet the man who films great whites for a living