Births: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, 1649; Theobald Bohm, flautist and composer, 1794; Elias Lonnrot, folklorist, 1802; Isambard Kingdom Brunel, engineer, 1806; Charles-Pierre Baudelaire, poet, 1821; Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge), photographer and inventor, 1830; Leopold II, King of the Belgians, 1835; Sir Charles Holroyd, painter and etcher, 1861; Erich Charles Proteus Steinmetz, electrical engineer, 1865; Leon Blum, statesman, 1872; Sir Gerald Festus Kelly, artist, 1879; Sol Hurok, theatrical impresario, 1888; Efrem Zimbalist, violinist, 1889; Paul Bustill Robeson, actor and singer, 1898; Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell, statesman, 1906; Victor Vasarely, Op Art painter, 1908; Sir Robert Murray Helpmann, dancer, 1909.

Deaths: Edward IV, King of England, 1483; Lorenzo de' Medici ('The Magnificent'), Florentine statesman, 1492; Francois Rabelais, author, 1553; Francis Bacon, Viscount St Albans, statesman, 1626; Simon Fraser, twelfth Baron Lovat, Jacobite, last man to be beheaded in England, 1747; Jacques Necker, financier and statesman, 1804; John Opie, infant prodigy, painter and illustrator, 1807; Dante Gabriel Rossetti, poet and pre-Raphaelite painter, 1882; Isabella II, Queen of Spain, 1904; Charles Conder, artist, 1909; Edward Thomas, poet, killed in action 1917; Mrs Patrick Campbell (Beatrice Stella Tanner), actress, 1940; Frank Lloyd Wright, architect, 1959; Sir Basil Henry Blackwell, bookseller and publisher, 1984.

On this day: the Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans at the Battle of Liegnitz (Wahlstatt), 1241; Botany Bay, Australia, was discovered by Captain James Cook, 1770; the National Gallery, London, was opened, 1838; General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, ending the American Civil War, 1865; the Hudson Bay Company agreed to cede its territorial rights to Canada, 1869; the world's first full-length colour film, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, a British production, was shown at the Holborn Empire, London, 1914; Latvia proclaimed her independence, 1918; the USS Liberty exploded in Bari harbour, Italy, killing 360 people, 1945; the Suez Canal was cleared for all shipping, 1957; Georgia voted to secede from the Soviet Union, 1991.

Today is the Feast Day of St Gaucherius, St Hugh of Rouen, St Mary Cleophas, St Uramar and St Waldetrudis or Waudru.


Births: James V, King of Scotland, 1512; Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot), jurist and theologian, 1583; John Wilmot, second Earl of Rochester, poet and courtier, 1647; Sir John Pringle, physician, 1707; Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, 1755; William Hazlitt, essayist and critic, 1778; Auguste-Joseph Franchomme, cellist, 1808; Lewis Wallace, novelist, author of Ben Hur, 1827; William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, 1829; Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper proprietor and founder of the Prizes, 1847; Arthur Melville, painter, 1855; Eugene (Eugen) Francis Charles D'Albert, pianist and composer, 1864; George Arliss (George Augustus Andrews), actor, 1868; Claire Booth Luce, playwright, 1903.

Deaths: Agostino Agazzari, composer, 1640; Joseph-Louis Lagrange, astronomer, mathematician and physicist, 1813; Alexander Nasmyth, painter, 1840; Giovanni Battista Amici, astronomer and optician, 1863; Jean-Baptiste Andre Dumas, chemist, 1884; Algernon Charles Swinburne, poet, 1909; Khalil Gibran, writer, 1931; Edgar Middleton, journalist and playwright, 1939; Auguste-Marie Louis Lumiere, cine pioneer, 1954; Michael Curtiz (Mihaly Kertesz), film director, 1962; Evelyn Arthur St John Waugh, novelist, 1966; Antonia White, journalist and novelist, 1980.

On this day: bananas were displayed in a London shop window, 1633; the United States patent system was established, 1790; Napoleon's army under General Soult was defeated by the Allies in the Battle of Toulouse, 1814; the first British settlers arrived at Algoa Bay, in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, 1820; the Catholic Emancipation Bill was passed by Parliament, 1829; the New York Tribune (later Herald-Tribune) was first published, 1841; the Chartists met on Kennington Common, London, and presented their petition to Parliament, 1848; George Eliot's novel The Mill on the Floss was published, 1860; Finland was granted a constitution by Russia, 1861; the Archduke Maximilian of Austria became Emperor of Mexico, 1864; Phineas T. Barnum's circus first opened, Brooklyn, New York, 1871; Paul von Hindenburg was re-elected President of Germany, 1932; the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes was sunk by Japanese dive bombers in the Bay of Bengal, 1942; the US Senate passed the Civil Rights Bill, 1960; the US submarine Thresher was lost off Cape Cod, with all the crew of 125, 1963; over 3,000 people were killed after severe earthquakes occurred in Iran, 1972; Golda Meir resigned as Prime Minister of Israel, 1974; the first London performance of the musical show Chicago was staged, 1979.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Bademus, St Fulbert of Chartres, St Macarius or Macaire of Ghent, St Michael de Sanctis, St Paternus of Abdinghof and The Martyrs under the Danes.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: Office Manager

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: Have you been doing a brilliant job in an admi...

Surrey County Council: Senior Project Officer (Fixed Term to Feb 2019)

£26,498 - £31,556: Surrey County Council: We are looking for an outgoing, conf...

Recruitment Genius: Interim Head of HR

£50000 - £60000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Are you an innovative, senior H...

Recruitment Genius: Human Resources and Payroll Administrator

£20000 - £22000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Our client, a very well respect...

Day In a Page

Syrian conflict is the world's first 'climate change war', say scientists, but it won't be the last one

Climate change key in Syrian conflict

And it will trigger more war in future
How I outwitted the Gestapo

How I outwitted the Gestapo

My life as a Jew in wartime Berlin
The nation's favourite animal revealed

The nation's favourite animal revealed

Women like cuddly creatures whilst men like creepy-crawlies
Is this the way to get young people to vote?

Getting young people to vote

From #VOTESELFISH to Bite the Ballot
Poldark star Heida Reed: 'I don't think a single bodice gets ripped'

Poldark star Heida Reed

'I don't think a single bodice gets ripped'
The difference between America and Israel? There isn’t one

The difference between America and Israel? There isn’t one

Netanyahu knows he can get away with anything in America, says Robert Fisk
Families clubbing together to build their own affordable accommodation

Do It Yourself approach to securing a new house

Community land trusts marking a new trend for taking the initiative away from developers
Head of WWF UK: We didn’t send Cameron to the Arctic to see green ideas freeze

David Nussbaum: We didn’t send Cameron to the Arctic to see green ideas freeze

The head of WWF UK remains sanguine despite the Government’s failure to live up to its pledges on the environment
Author Kazuo Ishiguro on being inspired by shoot-outs and samurai

Author Kazuo Ishiguro on being inspired by shoot-outs and samurai

Set in a mythologised 5th-century Britain, ‘The Buried Giant’ is a strange beast
With money, corruption and drugs, this monk fears Buddhism in Thailand is a ‘poisoned fruit’

Money, corruption and drugs

The monk who fears Buddhism in Thailand is a ‘poisoned fruit’
America's first slavery museum established at Django Unchained plantation - 150 years after slavery outlawed

150 years after it was outlawed...

... America's first slavery museum is established in Louisiana
Kelly Clarkson: How I snubbed Simon Cowell and become a Grammy-winning superstar

Kelly Clarkson: How I snubbed Simon Cowell and become a Grammy-winning superstar

The first 'American Idol' winner on how she manages to remain her own woman – Jane Austen fascination and all
Tony Oursler on exploring our uneasy relationship with technology with his new show

You won't believe your eyes

Tony Oursler's new show explores our uneasy relationship with technology. He's one of a growing number of artists with that preoccupation
Ian Herbert: Peter Moores must go. He should never have been brought back to fail again

Moores must go. He should never have been brought back to fail again

The England coach leaves players to find solutions - which makes you wonder where he adds value, says Ian Herbert
War with Isis: Fears that the looming battle for Mosul will unleash 'a million refugees'

The battle for Mosul will unleash 'a million refugees'

Aid agencies prepare for vast exodus following planned Iraqi offensive against the Isis-held city, reports Patrick Cockburn