Births: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, 1649; Theobald Bohm, flautist and composer, 1794; Elias Lonnrot, folklorist, 1802; Isambard Kingdom Brunel, engineer, 1806; Charles-Pierre Baudelaire, poet, 1821; Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge), photographer and inventor, 1830; Leopold II, King of the Belgians, 1835; Sir Charles Holroyd, painter and etcher, 1861; Erich Charles Proteus Steinmetz, electrical engineer, 1865; Leon Blum, statesman, 1872; Sir Gerald Festus Kelly, artist, 1879; Sol Hurok, theatrical impresario, 1888; Efrem Zimbalist, violinist, 1889; Paul Bustill Robeson, actor and singer, 1898; Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell, statesman, 1906; Victor Vasarely, Op Art painter, 1908; Sir Robert Murray Helpmann, dancer, 1909.

Deaths: Edward IV, King of England, 1483; Lorenzo de' Medici ('The Magnificent'), Florentine statesman, 1492; Francois Rabelais, author, 1553; Francis Bacon, Viscount St Albans, statesman, 1626; Simon Fraser, twelfth Baron Lovat, Jacobite, last man to be beheaded in England, 1747; Jacques Necker, financier and statesman, 1804; John Opie, infant prodigy, painter and illustrator, 1807; Dante Gabriel Rossetti, poet and pre-Raphaelite painter, 1882; Isabella II, Queen of Spain, 1904; Charles Conder, artist, 1909; Edward Thomas, poet, killed in action 1917; Mrs Patrick Campbell (Beatrice Stella Tanner), actress, 1940; Frank Lloyd Wright, architect, 1959; Sir Basil Henry Blackwell, bookseller and publisher, 1984.

On this day: the Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans at the Battle of Liegnitz (Wahlstatt), 1241; Botany Bay, Australia, was discovered by Captain James Cook, 1770; the National Gallery, London, was opened, 1838; General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, ending the American Civil War, 1865; the Hudson Bay Company agreed to cede its territorial rights to Canada, 1869; the world's first full-length colour film, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, a British production, was shown at the Holborn Empire, London, 1914; Latvia proclaimed her independence, 1918; the USS Liberty exploded in Bari harbour, Italy, killing 360 people, 1945; the Suez Canal was cleared for all shipping, 1957; Georgia voted to secede from the Soviet Union, 1991.

Today is the Feast Day of St Gaucherius, St Hugh of Rouen, St Mary Cleophas, St Uramar and St Waldetrudis or Waudru.


Births: James V, King of Scotland, 1512; Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot), jurist and theologian, 1583; John Wilmot, second Earl of Rochester, poet and courtier, 1647; Sir John Pringle, physician, 1707; Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, 1755; William Hazlitt, essayist and critic, 1778; Auguste-Joseph Franchomme, cellist, 1808; Lewis Wallace, novelist, author of Ben Hur, 1827; William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, 1829; Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper proprietor and founder of the Prizes, 1847; Arthur Melville, painter, 1855; Eugene (Eugen) Francis Charles D'Albert, pianist and composer, 1864; George Arliss (George Augustus Andrews), actor, 1868; Claire Booth Luce, playwright, 1903.

Deaths: Agostino Agazzari, composer, 1640; Joseph-Louis Lagrange, astronomer, mathematician and physicist, 1813; Alexander Nasmyth, painter, 1840; Giovanni Battista Amici, astronomer and optician, 1863; Jean-Baptiste Andre Dumas, chemist, 1884; Algernon Charles Swinburne, poet, 1909; Khalil Gibran, writer, 1931; Edgar Middleton, journalist and playwright, 1939; Auguste-Marie Louis Lumiere, cine pioneer, 1954; Michael Curtiz (Mihaly Kertesz), film director, 1962; Evelyn Arthur St John Waugh, novelist, 1966; Antonia White, journalist and novelist, 1980.

On this day: bananas were displayed in a London shop window, 1633; the United States patent system was established, 1790; Napoleon's army under General Soult was defeated by the Allies in the Battle of Toulouse, 1814; the first British settlers arrived at Algoa Bay, in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, 1820; the Catholic Emancipation Bill was passed by Parliament, 1829; the New York Tribune (later Herald-Tribune) was first published, 1841; the Chartists met on Kennington Common, London, and presented their petition to Parliament, 1848; George Eliot's novel The Mill on the Floss was published, 1860; Finland was granted a constitution by Russia, 1861; the Archduke Maximilian of Austria became Emperor of Mexico, 1864; Phineas T. Barnum's circus first opened, Brooklyn, New York, 1871; Paul von Hindenburg was re-elected President of Germany, 1932; the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes was sunk by Japanese dive bombers in the Bay of Bengal, 1942; the US Senate passed the Civil Rights Bill, 1960; the US submarine Thresher was lost off Cape Cod, with all the crew of 125, 1963; over 3,000 people were killed after severe earthquakes occurred in Iran, 1972; Golda Meir resigned as Prime Minister of Israel, 1974; the first London performance of the musical show Chicago was staged, 1979.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Bademus, St Fulbert of Chartres, St Macarius or Macaire of Ghent, St Michael de Sanctis, St Paternus of Abdinghof and The Martyrs under the Danes.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Ashdown Group: Human Resources Manager

£28000 - £35000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: A successful organisation...

Recruitment Genius: Internal Recruiter - Manufacturing

£20000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An Internal Recruiter (manufact...

Ashdown Group: HR Manager (CIPD) - Barking / East Ham - £50-55K

£50000 - £55000 per annum + 25 days holidays & benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Man...

Recruitment Genius: Operations / Project Manager

£40000 - £48000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This software company specialis...

Day In a Page

The long walk west: they fled war in Syria, only to get held up in Hungary – now hundreds of refugees have set off on foot for Austria

They fled war in Syria...

...only to get stuck and sidetracked in Hungary
From The Prisoner to Mad Men, elaborate title sequences are one of the keys to a great TV series

Title sequences: From The Prisoner to Mad Men

Elaborate title sequences are one of the keys to a great TV series. But why does the art form have such a chequered history?
Giorgio Armani Beauty's fabric-inspired foundations: Get back to basics this autumn

Giorgio Armani Beauty's foundations

Sumptuous fabrics meet luscious cosmetics for this elegant look
From stowaways to Operation Stack: Life in a transcontinental lorry cab

Life from the inside of a trucker's cab

From stowaways to Operation Stack, it's a challenging time to be a trucker heading to and from the Continent
Kelis interview: The songwriter and sauce-maker on cooking for Pharrell and crying over potatoes

Kelis interview

The singer and sauce-maker on cooking for Pharrell
Refugee crisis: David Cameron lowered the flag for the dead king of Saudi Arabia - will he do the same honour for little Aylan Kurdi?

Cameron lowered the flag for the dead king of Saudi Arabia...

But will he do the same honour for little Aylan Kurdi, asks Robert Fisk
Our leaders lack courage in this refugee crisis. We are shamed by our European neighbours

Our leaders lack courage in this refugee crisis. We are shamed by our European neighbours

Humanity must be at the heart of politics, says Jeremy Corbyn
Joe Biden's 'tease tour': Could the US Vice-President be testing the water for a presidential run?

Joe Biden's 'tease tour'

Could the US Vice-President be testing the water for a presidential run?
Britain's 24-hour culture: With the 'leisured society' a distant dream we're working longer and less regular hours than ever

Britain's 24-hour culture

With the 'leisured society' a distant dream we're working longer and less regular hours than ever
Diplomacy board game: Treachery is the way to win - which makes it just like the real thing

The addictive nature of Diplomacy

Bullying, betrayal, aggression – it may be just a board game, but the family that plays Diplomacy may never look at each other in the same way again
Lady Chatterley's Lover: Racy underwear for fans of DH Lawrence's equally racy tome

Fashion: Ooh, Lady Chatterley!

Take inspiration from DH Lawrence's racy tome with equally racy underwear
8 best children's clocks

Tick-tock: 8 best children's clocks

Whether you’re teaching them to tell the time or putting the finishing touches to a nursery, there’s a ticker for that
Charlie Austin: Queens Park Rangers striker says ‘If the move is not right, I’m not going’

Charlie Austin: ‘If the move is not right, I’m not going’

After hitting 18 goals in the Premier League last season, the QPR striker was the great non-deal of transfer deadline day. But he says he'd preferred another shot at promotion
Isis profits from destruction of antiquities by selling relics to dealers - and then blowing up the buildings they come from to conceal the evidence of looting

How Isis profits from destruction of antiquities

Robert Fisk on the terrorist group's manipulation of the market to increase the price of artefacts
Labour leadership: Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea

'If we lose touch we’ll end up with two decades of the Tories'

In an exclusive interview, Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea