Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Births: Giuseppe Catrufo, composer, 1771; Christian Gottfried Ehrenburg, zoologist, 1795; Heinrich Maria von Hess, historical painter, 1798; Charles- Edmond Henri Coussemaker, musicologist, 1805; Edward John Gregory, painter and engraver, 1850; Sydney Francis Barnes, cricketer, 1873; Getulio Dornelles Vargas, President of Brazil, 1883; Jayne Mansfield (Vera Jayne Palmer), actress, 1933.

Deaths: Pope Leo IX, 1054; Robert II, King of Scotland, 1390; Paolo Veronese (Cagliari), painter, 1588; Anton van Diemen, colonial administrator, 1645; Nicholas Saunderson, mathematician, 1739; Richard Price, nonconformist minister and writer, 1791; Benjamin Rush, physician and abolitionist, 1813; George Gordon Noel Byron, Lord Byron, poet, 1824; Sir Robert Smirke, architect, 1867; Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, statesman and novelist, 1881; Charles Robert Darwin, biologist, 1882; Sir George Scharf, art critic, 1895; Pierre Curie, chemist and physicist, 1906; Hugo Winkler, archaeologist, 1913; Sir Henry John Newbolt, poet and author, 1938; Gerald Hugh Tyrwhitt-Wilson, 14th Baron Berners, composer, 1950; Konrad Adenauer, statesman, 1967; Frankie Howerd (Francis Alex Howard), comedian, 1993.

On this day: Sir Francis Drake sailed into the harbour of Cadiz and sank the Spanish fleet at harbour - this he called 'singeing the King of Spain's beard', 1587; the Treaty of London was signed, under which Belgium became an independent kingdom, and Luxembourg a Grand Duchy, 1839; the San Francisco earthquake and fire ended, with 452 people dead, 1906; the opera Monsieur Beaucaire was first produced, London 1919; Prince Rainier III of Monaco married the actress Grace Kelly, 1956; Bangladesh was admitted to the Commonwealth, 1972.

Today is Primrose Day and the Feast Day of St Alphege or Elphege of Canterbury, St Expeditus, St Geroldus and St Leo IX, Pope.

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