Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Births: John Locke, philosopher, 1632; Raphael Georg Kiesewetter, Edler von Wiesenbrunn, historian of music, 1773; Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, painter, 1780; John Frederick Denison Maurice, theologian, 1805; Oliver Wendell Holmes, physician and writer, 1809; John Leech, caricaturist and illustrator, 1817; Richard Gardiner Casey, first Baron Casey, statesman, 1890; Ingrid Bergman, actress, 1915.

Deaths: Alessio Baldovinetti, painter, 1499; Louis Couperin, composer, 1661; Joseph Wright (of Derby), painter, 1797; William Brockedon, painter, author and inventor, 1854; Christian Friedrich Schonbein, chemist, 1868; Felicien-Cesar David, composer, 1876; The Rev William Archibald Spooner, perpetrator of 'Spoonerisms', 1930; Cesare Pavese, novelist and translator, 1950; Vicki (Hedwig) Baum, novelist, 1960; Ingrid Bergman, actress, 1982; Lee Marvin, actor, 1987; Mary Pearson Norton, children's author (of The Borrowers), 1992.

On this day: the Spanish fleet was defeated by Edward III at Winchelsea, 1350; Michael Faraday discovered the induction of electric currents, 1831; the Factory Act, regulating the employment of children, was passed, 1833; the Treaty of Nanking was signed, ending the Anglo-Chinese war, and agreeing the lease of the Hong Kong territories to Britain, 1842; the second Battle of Bull Run (American Civil War) started, 1862; the Sporting Times published an 'obituary' for English cricket, and first mentioned 'the Ashes', 1882; the Rugby League (originally 'Northern Union'), was formed from 21 clubs in the North of England, 1895; the Soviet Union exploded a hydrogen bomb, 1953.

Today is the Feast Day of St Edwold of Cerne, St Medericus or Merry, St Sabina of Rome and the Beheading of John the Baptist.

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