Births: Leonhard Fuchs, physician and botanist, 1501; Benjamin Franklin, printer and diplomat, 1706; George Lyttelton, first Lord Lyttelton, politician and poet, 1709; Francois-Joseph Gossec, composer, 1734; Sir James Hall, geologist, 1761; August Friedrich Leopold Weismann, geneticist, 1834; David Lloyd George, first Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, prime minister, 1863; Konstantin Sergeyevich Alekseyev (Konstantin Stanislavsky), actor-manager, 1863; Sir Edward Montague Compton Mackenzie, novelist, 1883; Al Capone, gangster, 1899; Nevil Shute (Norway), novelist, 1899.

Deaths: Theodosius I, Eastern Roman Emperor, 395; Murad III, Sultan of Turkey, 1595; Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni, composer, 1751; Pietro Francesco Cavalli, composer, 1676; Carlo Dolci, painter, 1686; John Ray, naturalist, 1705; Juan Cristostomo Arriaga, composer, 1826; Emile-Jean- Horace Vernet, painter, 1863; George Petrie, antiquary, 1866; Jean- Auguste-Dominique Ingres, painter, 1867; Alexander Sergeyevich Dargomitzhsky, composer, 1869;

Edmond-Francois-Valentin About, writer, 1885; Paul-Jacques-Aime Baudry, painter, 1886; George Bancroft, diplomat and historian, 1891; Rutherford Birchard Hayes, 19th President of the United States, 1893; Charles-Marie Leconte de Lisle, poet, 1894; Frederic William Henry Myers, poet and scholar, 1901; Quintin Hogg, merchant and founder of the Polytechnic, 1903; Admiral Sir Henry Keppel, sailor and writer, 1904; Sir Francis Galton, explorer and anthropologist, 1911; Carl Haag, painter, 1915; Terence Hanbury White, author, 1964; Neil Miller Gunn, novelist, 1973.

On this day: the city of Baghdad, population about 1 million, was captured and destroyed by the Mongol hordes under Hulagu, 1258; the Papal See was removed from Avignon to Rome, 1377; the Scottish rebels defeated Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk, 1746; Captain Cook's ship Resolution was the first to cross the Antarctic Circle, 1773; the Duke of Wellington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, 1827; the Sand River Convention, under which Britain recognised the independence of the Transvaal, was signed 1852; Hawaii was proclaimed a republic, 1893; Robert Falcon Scott reached the South Pole one month after Amundsen, 1912; Senegal and the French Sudan united to form the Federal State of Mali, 1959; after a US air collision, a hydrogen bomb was lost in the sea near Spain. It was recovered three months later, 1966; Gary Gilmore, a double murderer, was executed by firing squad at Utah State prison, 1977.

Today is the Feast Day of St Antony the Abbot, St Genulf or Genou, St Julian Sabas, St Richimir, St Sabinus of Piacenza, Saints Speusippus, Eleusippus and Meleusippus and St Sulpicius II or Sulpice of Bourges.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£36000 - £45000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Ashdown Group: HR Manager Shared Services - Uxbridge, - 1 Year contract

£50000 per annum: Ashdown Group: HR Manager Shared Services - Uxbridge, Stock...

Recruitment Genius: Graduate Human Resource Officer and Executive Assistant

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity to join one of...

Ashdown Group: HR Assistant (Events business) - Central Manchester - £20K

£18000 - £20000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Assistant (Events busi...

Day In a Page

General Election 2015: ‘We will not sit down with Nicola Sturgeon’, says Ed Balls

'We will not sit down with Nicola Sturgeon'

In an exclusive interview, Ed Balls says he won't negotiate his first Budget with SNP MPs - even if Labour need their votes to secure its passage
VE Day 70th anniversary: How ordinary Britons celebrated the end of war in Europe

How ordinary Britons celebrated VE Day

Our perception of VE Day usually involves crowds of giddy Britons casting off the shackles of war with gay abandon. The truth was more nuanced
They came in with William Caxton's printing press, but typefaces still matter in the digital age

Typefaces still matter in the digital age

A new typeface once took years to create, now thousands are available at the click of a drop-down menu. So why do most of us still rely on the old classics, asks Meg Carter?
Discovery of 'missing link' between the two main life-forms on Earth could explain evolution of animals, say scientists

'Missing link' between Earth's two life-forms found

New microbial species tells us something about our dark past, say scientists
The Pan Am Experience is a 'flight' back to the 1970s that never takes off - at least, not literally

Pan Am Experience: A 'flight' back to the 70s

Tim Walker checks in and checks out a four-hour journey with a difference
Humans aren't alone in indulging in politics - it's everywhere in the animal world

Humans aren't alone in indulging in politics

Voting, mutual back-scratching, coups and charismatic leaders - it's everywhere in the animal world
Ronald McDonald the muse? Why Banksy, Ron English and Keith Coventry are lovin' Maccy D's

Ronald McDonald the muse

A new wave of artists is taking inspiration from the fast food chain
13 best picnic blankets

13 best picnic blankets

Dine al fresco without the grass stains and damp bottoms with something from our pick of picnic rugs
General Election 2015: Ed Miliband's unlikely journey from hapless geek to heart-throb

Miliband's unlikely journey from hapless geek to heart-throb

He was meant to be Labour's biggest handicap - but has become almost an asset
General Election 2015: A guide to the smaller parties, from the the National Health Action Party to the Church of the Militant Elvis Party

On the margins

From Militant Elvis to Women's Equality: a guide to the underdogs standing in the election
Amr Darrag: Ex-Muslim Brotherhood minister in exile still believes Egypt's military regime can be replaced with 'moderate' Islamic rule

'This is the battle of young Egypt for the future of our country'

Ex-Muslim Brotherhood minister Amr Darrag still believes the opposition can rid Egypt of its military regime and replace it with 'moderate' Islamic rule, he tells Robert Fisk
Why patients must rely less on doctors: Improving our own health is the 'blockbuster drug of the century'

Why patients must rely less on doctors

Improving our own health is the 'blockbuster drug of the century'
Sarah Lucas is the perfect artist to represent Britain at the Venice Biennale

Flesh in Venice

Sarah Lucas has filled the British pavilion at the Venice Biennale with slinky cats and casts of her female friends' private parts. It makes you proud to be a woman, says Karen Wright
11 best anti-ageing day creams

11 best anti-ageing day creams

Slow down the ageing process with one of these high-performance, hardworking anti-agers
Juventus 2 Real Madrid 1: Five things we learnt, including Iker Casillas is past it and Carlos Tevez remains effective

Juventus vs Real Madrid

Five things we learnt from the Italian's Champions League first leg win over the Spanish giants