Monday 04 July 1994
Deaths: Bencivieni di Pepo (Giovanni Cimabue), painter, 1302; Ortelius (Abraham Oertel), cartographer, 1598; William Byrd, organist and composer, 1623; Samuel Richardson, novelist, 1761; Richard Cosway, miniature painter, 1821; John Adams, second US President, 1826; Thomas Jefferson, third US President, 1826; James Monroe, fifth US President, 1831; Viscomte Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, politician and writer, 1848; Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli, astronomer, 1910; Marie Curie (Marja Sklodowska), chemist, 1934; Suzanne Lenglen, tennis player, 1938; Louis Wain, illustrator, 1939; Wladyslaw Sikorski, prime minister of Poland, in an air crash 1943; Sir Bernard Cyril, first Baron Freyberg, Governor-General of New Zealand, 1963.
On this day: Saladin defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Tiberias, 1187; Providence, Rhode Island, was founded by the English Puritan, Roger Williams, 1636; the American Declaration of Independence was adopted, 1776; the US Military Academy was opened at West Point with 10 cadets, 1802; the second Theatre Royal Haymarket opened in London, 1821; Don Miguel assumed the title of King of Portugal, 1828; the first London bus ran from Marylebone Road to the Bank of England, 1829; the Britannia, the first Cunard steamship, sailed from Liverpool to Halifax and Boston, 1840; Karl Heinrich Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto, 1848; the Union army defeated the Confederates at the Battle of Vicksburg, 1863; the Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States by the people of France, 1883; the Gaiety Theatre, Strand, London, was demolished, 1903; the construction of the Panama Canal began, 1904; Hanna Reitsch made the first successful flight in a helicopter, Germany, 1937.
Today is Independence Day in the United States and the Feast Day of St Andrew of Crete, St Bertha of Blangy, St Elizabeth of Portugal, St Odo of Canterbury, St Ulric of Augsburg and The Martyrs of Dorchester.
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Lucy Hawking: Stephen Hawking's daughter writes impassioned open letter to Katie Hopkins about rights of disabled people
Oxygen-starved 'dead zones' with no marine life up to 100-miles long discovered in the Atlantic Ocean
How the language you speak changes your view of the world
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Russell Brand backs Ed Miliband: 'You gotta vote Labour'
Over 50,000 families shipped out of London boroughs in the past three years due to welfare cuts and soaring rents
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The Rothschild Libel: Why has it taken 200 years for an anti-Semitic slur that emerged from the Battle of Waterloo to be dismissed?
General Election 2015: SNP and its activists 'openly racist' towards the English, Farage says
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Schools forced to act as 'miniature welfare states' with teachers buying underwear and even haircuts for poor pupils
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