Anniversaries

TODAY

Births: Elias Howe, inventor of the sewing-machine, 1819; Nikola Tesla, electrician and inventor, 1856; Robert Frederick Blum, artist, 1857; Charles Bruce Bairnsfather, cartoonist, 1888; Simon Marks, first Baron Marks of Broughton, a founder of Marks and Spencer, 1888; Ian Mikardo, Labour MP, 1908.

Deaths: Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1228; Jan van Eyck, painter, 1440; Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia, 1677; Philip V, King of Spain, 1746; King Camp Gillette, inventor and manufacturer of the safety razor, 1932; Randall Thompson, composer, 1984.

On this day: Henry VIII divorced Anne of Cleves, 1540; Holland was joined to France under Napoleon, 1810; the Congress of Tucuman was held, at which Argentina declared its independence from Spain, 1816; in Edinburgh, Madeleine Hamilton Smith was acquitted of murder, the verdict being 'not proven', 1857; a massacre of Christians in Damascus started, 1860; the Treaty of Versailles was ratified by Germany, 1919; the Allies captured Caen in Normandy, 1944; the Bank of England issued pounds 20 banknotes (previous pounds 20 notes had been withdrawn in 1945), 1970; the Bahamas became independent, 1973.

Today is the Feast Day of St Everild, St Nicholas Pieck and his Companions, the Martyrs of Gorcum (Holland) and St Veronica de Julianis.

TOMORROW

Births: John Calvin, religious reformer, 1509; Mrs Aphra Behn, playwright and novelist, baptised 1640; Capt Frederick Marryat, novelist, 1792; Robert Chambers, publisher and author, 1802; Camille Pissarro, painter, 1830; Marcel Proust, author, 1871; John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, sixth Viscount Gort, soldier, 1886; Carl Orff, composer, 1895.

Deaths: Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman emperor, 138; El Cid (Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar), Spanish hero, 1099; Ladislaus IV the Cumanian, King of Hungary, assassinated 1290; Henry II, King of France, killed 1559; William I, the Silent, Prince of Orange, assassinated 1584; Theodore II, Tsar of Russia, assassinated 1605; George Stubbs, animal painter, 1806; Louis-Jacques Mande Daguerre, photographic pioneer, 1851; (Ferdinand) Jelly Roll Morton, ragtime composer and pianist, 1941; Giorgio de Chirico, painter, 1978.

On this day: Henry VI of Lancaster was captured by the Yorkists at the Battle of Northampton, 1460; Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen of England, 1553; Peter III, Tsar of Russia, was dethroned, 1762; Mongolia was proclaimed an independent state, 1921; the Battle of Britain began, 1940; the first parking meters were installed in London, 1958; the Cable and Broadcasting Act was passed, permitting cable television to be operated, 1984.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Amelberga, Saints Rufina and Secunda, the Seven Brothers and St Felicity.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: They are in need of a HR Manage...

h2 Recruit Ltd: Business Development Manager - HR Consultancy - £65,000 OTE

£35000 - £40000 per annum + £65,000 OTE: h2 Recruit Ltd: London, Birmingham, M...

Day In a Page

A Christmas without hope: Fears grow in Gaza that the conflict with Israel will soon reignite

Christmas without hope

Gaza fears grow that conflict with Israel will soon reignite
After 150 years, you can finally visit the grisliest museum in the country

The 'Black Museum'

After 150 years, you can finally visit Britain's grisliest museum
No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

No ho-ho-hos with Nick Frost's badass Santa

Doctor Who Christmas Special TV review
Chilly Christmas: Swimmers take festive dip for charity

Chilly Christmas

Swimmers dive into freezing British waters for charity
Veterans' hostel 'overwhelmed by kindness' for festive dinner

Homeless Veterans appeal

In 2010, Sgt Gary Jamieson stepped on an IED in Afghanistan and lost his legs and an arm. He reveals what, and who, helped him to make a remarkable recovery
Isis in Iraq: Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment by militants

'Jilan killed herself in the bathroom. She cut her wrists and hanged herself'

Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment
Ed Balls interview: 'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'

Ed Balls interview

'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'
He's behind you, dude!

US stars in UK panto

From David Hasselhoff to Jerry Hall
Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz: What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?

Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz

What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?
Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Planet’s surface is inhospitable to humans but 30 miles above it is almost perfect
Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history - clocks, rifles, frogmen’s uniforms and colonial helmets

Clocks, rifles, swords, frogmen’s uniforms

Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history
Return to Gaza: Four months on, the wounds left by Israel's bombardment have not yet healed

Four months after the bombardment, Gaza’s wounds are yet to heal

Kim Sengupta is reunited with a man whose plight mirrors the suffering of the Palestinian people
Gastric surgery: Is it really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

Is gastric surgery really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

Critics argue that it’s crazy to operate on healthy people just to stop them eating
Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction Part 2 - now LIVE

Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction

Bid on original art, or trips of a lifetime to Africa or the 'Corrie' set, and help Homeless Veterans
Pantomime rings the changes to welcome autistic theatre-goers

Autism-friendly theatre

Pantomime leads the pack in quest to welcome all