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Births: Giorgio Vasari, painter, architect and writer, 1511; Eduard Eggeling, pianist and composer, 1813; Emily Jane Bronte, novelist, 1818; Richard Burdon Haldane, first Viscount Haldane, founder of the Territorial Army, 1856; Henry Ford, motor-car manufacturer, 1863; Jean-Jacques Bernard, playwright and novelist, 1888; Dorothy Violet (Ashton) Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington, poet, 1889; Henry Moore, sculptor, 1898; Professor Cyril Northcote Parkinson, historian and inventor of 'Parkinson's Law', 1909.

Deaths: Philip I, King of France, 1108; Jacopo Palma (Negreti), painter, 1528; William Penn, Quaker leader, 1718; Thomas Gray, poet, 1771; Denis Diderot, encyclopaedist, 1784; Richard Rush, statesman, 1859; Sir Charles Hastings, physician, founder of the British Medical Association, 1866; Walter Horatio Pater, writer, 1894; Otto, Furst von Bismarck- Schonhausen, Chancellor of Germany, 1898; Adolf Schreyer, painter, 1899; Emperor Mutsuhito of Japan, 1912; Field Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn, German military dictator in the Ukraine, assassinated 1918; Sir Joseph Cook, prime minister of Australia, 1947; Lynn Fontanne, actress, 1983; Ian Gow MP, killed at his home after a bomb, set by the IRA, exploded in his car 1990.

On this day: the Battle of Warsaw ended, with the defeat of the Poles, 1656; the Jacobites were defeated at Newton Butler, 1689; the New York and Staten Island ferryboat exploded, with the loss of 100 lives, 1871; Toronto (then called York) was founded by General John Simcoe, 1793; a great fire in New York resulted in dollars 1m worth of damage, 1890; Kurt von Schuschnigg became Chancellor of Austria, 1934; the Xth Olympic Games opened in Los Angeles, 1932; the first Penguin books were published, 1935; the world's first port radar station opened at Liverpool, 1948; Harold Adrian Russell ('Kim') Philby, British journalist and spy, was granted asylum in the Soviet Union, 1963; England won the Football World Cup, beating West Germany 4-2 at Wembley, 1966; television transmission of pictures from Mars were sent back to Earth by the US Mariner 6 spacecraft, 1969; Greece and Turkey signed an interim peace agreement over Cyprus, 1974.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Abdon and Sennen, St Julitta of Caesarea, St Peter Chrysologus and St Tatwin, archbishop of Canterbury.


Births: Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1527; Amelie-Julie Candeille, actress, singer and composer, 1767; Friedrich Wohler, chemist, 1800; John Ericsson, naval engineer, 1803; Francois-Auguste Gevaert, composer, 1828; Theobald Smith, pathologist, 1859.

Deaths: St Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, 1556; Jacobus Gallus (Jakob Handl), composer, 1591; Juste- Aurele Meissonier, goldsmith, painter and sculptor, 1750; Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican revolutionary and priest, killed 1811; Johann Nepomuk Maelzel, musician and inventor, 1838; Sandor Petofi (Alexander Petrovics), poet, killed in battle 1849; Louis-Christophe Francois Hachette, publisher and bookseller, 1864; Benoit Fourneyron, inventor of the water turbine, 1867; Franz Liszt, composer, 1886; Frank Holl, painter, 1888; Richard Morris Hunt, architect, 1895; Jean- Joseph Auguste-Marie Jaures, statesman, assassinated 1914; Sir Harry Scoresby Routledge, anthropologist and explorer, 1939; Sir Francis Younghusband, soldier, diplomat and explorer, 1942; Owen Ramsay Nares,actor-manager, 1943; Captain Hedley Verity, cricketer, on active service 1943; Guilhermina Suggia, cellist, 1950; Jim Reeves, country singer, killed 1964; Margaret Kennedy, novelist, 1967; Gian Francesco Malipiero, composer, 1973.

On this day: William Caxton published Le Morte D'Arthur by Sir Thomas Mallory, 1485; Trinidad was discovered by Christopher Columbus on his third voyage, 1498; the yacht America, the first winner of the America's Cup, reached Cowes, Isle of Wight, 1851; the London Echo newspaper was last issued, 1905; the Boy Scout movement was inaugurated by Sir Robert Baden-Powell, 1908; Dr Crippen was arrested on board the SS Montrose for the murder of his wife, 1910; the third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) began, 1917; Germany adopted the Weimar constitution, 1925; Mount Godwin- Austin (K2) was climbed by an Italian expedition, 1954; the cross-Channel Hovercraft service was inaugurated, 1968; Pope Paul VI visited Uganda, the first time that a pope had visited Africa, 1969.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Helen of Skovde, St Ignatius of Loyola, St Justin de Jacobis and St Neot.