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Births: James Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, 1688; John Morgan, physician, 1735; Gustave Courbet, painter, 1819; Andre Derain, painter, 1880; Frederick Loewe, composer, 1901; Robert Still, composer, 1910; Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan, playwright, 1911; Judy Garland (Frances Ethel Gumm), singer and actress, 1922; Ian Robert Maxwell (Jan Ludvik Hoch), publisher, 1923.

Deaths: Frederick I, Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, 1190; Luis Vaz de Camoes, poet, 1580; George I, King, 1727; Louis-Jean-Francoise Lagrenee, French painter, 1805; Frederick Yeates Hurlstone, painter, 1869; Ernest Chausson, composer, 1899; Pierre Loti (Louis-Marie-Julien Viaud), novelist and naval officer, 1923; Antonio Gaudi y Cornet, architect, 1926; Frederick Theodore Albert Delius, composer, 1934; Spencer Tracy, actor, 1967; Henry, Duke of Gloucester, 1974.

On this day: the first Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race was rowed, and was won by Oxford, 1829; the Crystal Palace at Sydenham near London was officially opened, 1854; 'Alcoholics Anonymous' was founded in the US by William Wilson, a broker, and Dr Robert Smith, a physician, 1935; Italy became a republic, 1946.

Today is the Feast Day of St Bardo, St Bogumilus or Theophilus, St Getulius and his Companions, St Ithamar and St Landericus or Landry of Paris. Today is also the beginning of the Muslim New Year (AH 1415).