Births: Gerhardus Mercator (Gerhard Kremer), cartographer, 1512; William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor, 1575; Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, painter, 1696; James Madison, fourth US President, 1751; Sir Charles Wyville Thomson, zoologist, 1830; Rosa Luxemburg, Spartacist agitator, 1871; Herbert Farjeon, critic and playwright, 1887; Heitor Villa-Lobos, composer, 1887; Sir Rex Carey Harrison, actor, 1908.

Deaths: Antonio Allegri da Correggio, painter, 1534; Thomas Augustine Arne, composer ('Rule, Britannia'), 1778; Flora Macdonald, Jacobite heroine, 1790; Franz Anton Mesmer, physician and founder of 'animal magnetism', 1815; Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev, composer, 1953; Joseph Stalin, Russian leader, 1953; William Cameron Menzies, film director, 1957; Anna Akhmatova (Anna Andreyevna Gorenko), poet, 1966; Tito Gobbi, baritone, 1984; William Powell, actor, 1984.

On this day: the foundation stone of New College, Oxford, was laid, 1397; Lee De Forest demonstrated an experimental radio broadcast from New York, 1907; the Nazis made large gains in the German general election, 1933; Winston Churchill made a speech referring to an 'Iron Curtain' across Europe, 1946.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Adrian and Eubulus, St Eusebius of Cremona, St Gerasimus, St John Joseph of the Cross, St Kieran of Saighir, St Phocas of Antioch, St Piran and St Virgil of Arles.


Births: Michelangelo (Michelagniolo Buonarroti), painter, sculptor and poet, 1475; Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, novelist and playwright, 1619; Elizabeth Barrett Browning, poet, 1806; George Louis Palmella Busson du Maurier, caricaturist and novelist, 1834; Bronson James Albery, theatrical manager, 1881; Ringgold Wilmer Lardner, humorous writer, 1885; Lou Costello (Louis Francis Cristillo), actor and comedian, 1906; Frankie Howerd (Francis Alex Howard), comedian, 1922.

Deaths: Davy Crockett, frontiersman, killed at the Alamo 1836; Jean-Baptiste Girard (Pere Gregoire), priest and educationist, 1850; William Whewell, philosopher and author, 1866; Louisa May Alcott, novelist, 1888; Gottlieb Daimler, mechanical engineer, 1900; William Worrell Mayo, a founder of the Mayo clinic, 1911; Alfred von Tirpitz, naval commander and statesman, 1930; John Philip Sousa, bandmaster and composer, 1932; David Ivor Novello (Davies), composer and playwright, 1951; George Formby (William Hoy Booth), singer and comedian, 1961; Herbert Stanley Morrison, statesman, 1965; Zoltan Kodaly, composer, 1967; Donald Maclean, former diplomat and Soviet agent, 1983.

On this day: the Battle and Siege of the Alamo, Texas, ended, when there were only six survivors left of 155 Texans, 1836; Verdi's opera La Traviata was first performed, Venice 1853; Serbia was proclaimed a kingdom, 1882; King Milan of Serbia abdicated, and his 13- year-old son, Alexander, acceded to the throne, 1889; British soldiers were granted the right to wear spectacles on or off duty, 1902; the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-upon- Avon was destroyed by fire, 1926; frozen food was first put on sale by the Birdseye company, 1930the US Air Force began daylight bombing raids on Berlin, 1944; Constantine II succeeded Paul I as King of the Hellenes, 1964.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of Saints Balred and Bilfrid, St Cadroe, St Chrodegang of Metz, St Colette, Saints Cyneburga, Cyneswide and Tibba, St Cyril of Constantinople, St Fridolin, St Ollegarius or Oldegar and Saints Perpetua and Felicity.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Austen Lloyd: Practice / HR Manager - Somerset

Excellent Salary: Austen Lloyd: A rare and exciting opportunity for a Practice...

Ashdown Group: HR Executive

£20000 - £23000 per annum + benefits : Ashdown Group: An exciting opportunity...

Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher

£150 - £180 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: A mainstream Secondary school in C...

Guru Careers: HR Administrator / Training Coordinator

COMPETITIVE: Guru Careers: An HR Administrator / Training Coordinator is requi...

Day In a Page

Mullah Omar, creator of the Taliban, is dead... for the fourth time

Mullah Omar, creator of the Taliban, is dead... again

I was once told that intelligence services declare their enemies dead to provoke them into popping up their heads and revealing their location, says Robert Fisk
Margaret Attwood on climate change: 'Time is running out for our fragile, Goldilocks planet'

Margaret Attwood on climate change

The author looks back on what she wrote about oil in 2009, and reflects on how the conversation has changed in a mere six years
New Dr Seuss manuscript discovered: What Pet Should I Get? goes on sale this week

New Dr Seuss manuscript discovered

What Pet Should I Get? goes on sale this week
Oculus Rift and the lonely cartoon hedgehog who could become the first ever virtual reality movie star

The cartoon hedgehog leading the way into a whole new reality

Virtual reality is the 'next chapter' of entertainment. Tim Walker gives it a try
Ants have unique ability to switch between individual and collective action, says study

Secrets of ants' teamwork revealed

The insects have an almost unique ability to switch between individual and collective action
Donovan interview: The singer is releasing a greatest hits album to mark his 50th year in folk

Donovan marks his 50th year in folk

The singer tells Nick Duerden about receiving death threats, why the world is 'mentally ill', and how he can write a song about anything, from ecology to crumpets
Let's Race simulator: Ultra-realistic technology recreates thrill of the Formula One circuit

Simulator recreates thrill of F1 circuit

Rory Buckeridge gets behind the wheel and explains how it works
Twitter accused of 'Facebookisation' over plans to overhaul reverse-chronological timeline

Twitter accused of 'Facebookisation'

Facebook exasperates its users by deciding which posts they can and can’t see. So why has Twitter announced plans to do the same?
Jane Birkin asks Hermès to rename bag - but what else could the fashion house call it?

Jane Birkin asks Hermès to rename bag

The star was shocked by a Peta investigation into the exotic skins trade
10 best waterproof mascaras

Whatever the weather: 10 best waterproof mascaras

We found lash-enhancing beauties that won’t budge no matter what you throw at them
Diego Costa biography: Chelsea striker's route to the top - from those who shared his journey

Diego Costa: I go to war. You come with me...

Chelsea's rampaging striker had to fight his way from a poor city in Brazil to life at the top of the Premier League. A new book speaks to those who shared his journey
Ashes 2015: England show the mettle to strike back hard in third Test

England show the mettle to strike back hard in third Test

The biggest problem facing them in Birmingham was the recovery of the zeitgeist that drained so quickly under the weight of Australian runs at Lord's, says Kevin Garside
Women's Open 2015: Charley Hull - 'I know I'm a good golfer but I'm also just a person'

Charley Hull: 'I know I'm a good golfer but I'm also just a person'

British teen keeps her feet on ground ahead of Women's Open
Turkey's conflict with Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq can benefit Isis in Syria

Turkey's conflict with Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq can benefit Isis in Syria

Turkish President Erdogan could benefit politically from the targeting of the PKK, says Patrick Cockburn
Yvette Cooper: Our choice is years of Tory rule under Jeremy Corbyn or a return to a Labour government

Our choice is years of Tory rule under Corbyn or a return to a Labour government

Yvette Cooper urged Labour members to 'get serious' about the next general election rather than become 'a protest movement'